Late effects of chemotherapeutic agents on renal function in childhood cancer survivors: a review of the literature.

Authors: O'Sullivan D


Ir J Med Sci. 2017 Feb;186(1):49-55

BACKGROUND: Survival outcomes for childhood cancers have significantly improved. As more children are now surviving into adulthood, knowledge of the long-term effects of childhood cancer treatments has become the focus of research.
AIM: To determine what is known about the incidence of renal function impairment in childhood cancer survivors and to determine what is known about risk factors for developing renal function impairment following childhood cancer treatment.
METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was preformed to identify studies that investigated renal dysfunction in patients who were diagnosed with childhood cancer and treated with potentially nephrotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Potentially nephrotoxic chemotherapeutic agents identified in the selection criteria include ifosfamide, cisplatin, carboplatin and methotrexate.
RESULTS: 15 papers met the inclusion criteria. Renal function impairment was reported in 15 of 15 studies included in this literature review. The incidence of ifosfamide induced nephrotoxicity varied from 1 to 50 %. This variation may be due to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measurements. Treatment with cisplatin and carboplatin was associated with hypomagnesemia. The prevalence of hypomagnesemia varied from 7 to 29 %. This variation may be due to diversity of treatment protocols. The incidence of renal dysfunction following treatment with methotrexate was reported as 1.8 % and completely reversible.
CONCLUSION: As more childhood cancer survivors are reaching adulthood, a new niche of cancer research has emerged. Researchers are now investigating the late effects due to cytotoxic treatments. Renal function impairment is a potential late effect of treatment with nephrotoxic chemotherapeutic agents including ifosfamide, cisplatin, carboplatin and methotrexate.



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