Reductions in Medication-Related Hospitalizations in Older Adults with Medication Management by Hospital and Community Pharmacists: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

Authors: Pellegrin KL, Krenk L, Oakes SJ, Ciarleglio A, Lynn J, McInnis T, Bairos AW, Gomez L, McCrary MB, Hanlon AL, Miyamura J


J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017 Jan;65(1):212-219

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between a system of medication management services provided by specially trained hospital and community pharmacists (Pharm2Pharm) and rates and costs of medication-related hospitalization in older adults.
DESIGN: Quasi-experimental interrupted time series design comparing intervention and nonintervention hospitals using a mixed-effects analysis that modeled the intervention as a time-dependent variable.
SETTING: Sequential implementation of Pharm2Pharm at six general nonfederal acute care hospitals in Hawaii with more than 50 beds in 2013 and 2014. All five other such hospitals served as a contemporaneous comparison group.
PARTICIPANTS: Adult inpatients who met criteria for being at risk for medication problems (N = 2,083), 62% of whom were aged 65 or older.
INTERVENTION: A state-wide system of medication management services provided by specially trained hospital and community pharmacists serving high-risk individuals from hospitalization through transition to home and for up to 1 year after discharge.
MEASUREMENTS: Medication-related hospitalization rate per 1,000 admissions of individuals aged 65 and older, adjusted for case mix; estimate of costs of hospitalizations and actual costs of pharmacist services.
RESULTS: The predicted, case mix-adjusted medication-related hospitalization rate of individuals aged 65 and older was 36.5% lower in the Pharm2Pharm hospitals after implementation than in the nonintervention hospitals (P = .01). The estimated annualized cost of avoided admissions was $6.6 million. The annual cost of the pharmacist services for all Pharm2Pharm participants was $1.8 million.
CONCLUSION: The Pharm2Pharm model was associated with an estimated 36% reduction in the medication-related hospitalization rate for older adults and a 2.6:1 return on investment, highlighting the value of pharmacists as drug therapy experts in geriatric care.



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