Tobacco cessation interventions for young people

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Authors: Fanshawe TR, Halliwell W, Lindson N, Aveyard P, Livingstone-Banks J, Hartmann-Boyce J.

Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD003289. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003289.pub6.

Hospital clowning: a paediatrician’s view.

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Hospital clowning: a paediatrician's view. Eur J Pediatr. 2017 Feb;176(2):191-197 Authors: van Venrooij LT, Barnhoorn PC Abstract This study investigates the current position of hospital clowns from the perspective of paediatricians and paediatric residents. A total of 14 attending paediatricians and paediatric residents participated in two focus group sessions. Data were analysed using Atlas.ti 5.0. In general, physicians reported positive experiences regarding the interaction between hospital clowns and paediatric patients on the ward. Physicians were more interested in research on children's perception of hospital clowns than in research on the clinical efficacy of hospital clowning. No direct collaboration between physicians and hospital clowns was reported. However, physicians proposed conditions which may streamline their encounters with hospital clowns such as clear communication prior to hospital clown visits, and the condition that visits do not impede medical interventions. CONCLUSION: Overall, paediatricians and paediatric residents view the positive impact on paediatric patients as the most important aspect of hospital clown visits, rather than the clinical efficacy of hospital clowning. In light of the growing number of hospital clowns worldwide, this article provides recommendations for arranging their encounters with paediatricians and paediatric residents to maintain optimal health care. What is known: • Previous studies show a clinically significant pain- and anxiety-reducing effect of hospital clowning in paediatric patients admitted to hospitals or undergoing (invasive) medical procedures. • In general, paediatricians have positive ideas about hospital clowns, aside from personal prejudices. What is new: • This novel study gives deeper insight into day-to-day interaction between paediatricians and hospital clowns on the ward. • This study provides recommendations for clinical practice to arrange encounters between physicians and hospital clowns during hospital clown visits. PMID: 28013377 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

News Reports and Their Role in Child Agricultural Injury Prevention.

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News Reports and Their Role in Child Agricultural Injury Prevention. J Agromedicine. 2017;22(2):71-77 Authors: Marlenga B, Berg RL, Gallagher SS Abstract OBJECTIVES: The news media can be important sources of health information. News reports of child agricultural injuries were examined to assess what was reported and to evaluate potential implications for health communication and surveillance efforts. METHODS: A content analysis was conducted of a convenience sample of 113 US news reports from 2012 to 2014 involving agricultural injuries to children less than 18 years of age. The data collection instrument included basic elements of injury surveillance, as well as variables related to injury causation and prevention. RESULTS: Law enforcement personnel were the main source of information on the injury event (79%). Severity, age, sex, injury mechanism, and source were reported more than 90% of the time. However, few news reports mentioned use or lack of protective equipment (12%) or a prevention message (6%). Recommended prevention messages from the research team included keeping young children out of the farm worksite (38%) and following guidelines for age-appropriate work and recreational activities (31%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that news reports provide a valuable and relatively inexpensive addition to other childhood agricultural injury data sources. They highlight current serious events and have potential to be an effective communication tool with respect to education, prevention, and framing the public's perception of injury risk. An important next step may be to partner with law enforcement to develop three to five prevention messages that can be shared with reporters to educate readers on risks and steps that can be taken to prevent similar injuries on farms and ranches. PMID: 28107106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Latex Safe at School: A Student-Centered Approach.

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Latex Safe at School: A Student-Centered Approach. NASN Sch Nurse. 2017 Aug 01;:1942602X17715495 Authors: Beierwaltes P, Schoessler S Abstract Providing a safe environment for students at risk for anaphylaxis from a latex allergy requires care coordination and collaboration of all members of the school community. Strategies for allergy management include educating the school community, identifying potential exposure to latex, preparing to respond in an emergency, and creating a plan for the future. With the student at the center of sound planning, the school can provide a secure and healthy environment. PMID: 28777679 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Music therapy for children and adolescents with behavioural and emotional problems: a randomised controlled trial.

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Music therapy for children and adolescents with behavioural and emotional problems: a randomised controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2017 May;58(5):586-594 Authors: Porter S, McConnell T, McLaughlin K, Lynn F, Cardwell C, Braiden HJ, Boylan J, Holmes V, Music in Mind Study Group Abstract BACKGROUND: Although music therapy (MT) is considered an effective intervention for young people with mental health needs, its efficacy in clinical settings is unclear. We therefore examined the efficacy of MT in clinical practice. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-one child (8-16 years, with social, emotional, behavioural and developmental difficulties) and parent dyads from six Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service community care facilities in Northern Ireland were randomised to 12 weekly sessions of MT plus usual care [n = 123; 76 in final analyses] or usual care alone [n = 128; 105 in final analyses]. Follow-up occurred at 13 weeks and 26 weeks postrandomisation. Primary outcome was improvement in communication (Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales) (SSIS) at 13 weeks. Secondary outcomes included social functioning, self-esteem, depression and family functioning. RESULTS: There was no significant difference for the child SSIS at week 13 (adjusted difference in mean 2.4; 95% CI -1.2 to 6.1; p = .19) or for the guardian SSIS (0.5; 95% CI -2.9 to 3.8; p = .78). However, for participants aged 13 and over in the intervention group, the child SSIS communication was significantly improved (6.1, 95% CI 1.6 to 10.5; p = .007) but not the guardian SSIS (1.1; 95% CI -2.9 to 5.2; p = .59). Overall, self-esteem was significantly improved and depression scores were significantly lower at week 13. There was no significant difference in family or social functioning at week 13. CONCLUSIONS: While the findings provide some evidence for the integration of music therapy into clinical practice, differences relating to subgroups and secondary outcomes indicate the need for further study. ISRCTN Register; ISRCTN96352204. PMID: 27786359 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Prediction of cesarean delivery in the term nulliparous woman: results from the prospective, multicenter Genesis study.

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Prediction of cesarean delivery in the term nulliparous woman: results from the prospective, multicenter Genesis study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jun;216(6):598.e1-598.e11 Authors: Burke N, Burke G, Breathnach F, McAuliffe F, Morrison JJ, Turner M, Dornan S, Higgins JR, Cotter A, Geary M, McParland P, Daly S, Cody F, Dicker P, Tully E, Malone FD, Perinatal Ireland Research Consortium Abstract BACKGROUND: In contemporary practice many nulliparous women require intervention during childbirth such as operative vaginal delivery or cesarean delivery (CD). Despite the knowledge that the increasing rate of CD is associated with increasing maternal age, obesity and larger infant birthweight, we lack a reliable method to predict the requirement for such potentially hazardous obstetric procedures during labor and delivery. This issue is important, as there are greater rates of morbidity and mortality associated with unplanned CD performed in labor compared with scheduled CDs. A prediction algorithm to identify women at risk of an unplanned CD could help reduced labor associated morbidity. OBJECTIVE: In this primary analysis of the Genesis study, our objective was to prospectively assess the use of prenatally determined, maternal and fetal, anthropomorphic, clinical, and ultrasound features to develop a predictive tool for unplanned CD in the term nulliparous woman, before the onset of labor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Genesis study recruited 2336 nulliparous women with a vertex presentation between 39+0 and 40+6 weeks' gestation in a prospective multicenter national study to examine predictors of CD. At recruitment, a detailed clinical evaluation and ultrasound assessment were performed. To reduce bias from knowledge of these data potentially influencing mode of delivery, women, midwives, and obstetricians were blinded to the ultrasound data. All hypothetical prenatal risk factors for unplanned CD were assessed as a composite. Multiple logistic regression analysis and mathematical modeling was used to develop a risk evaluation tool for CD in nulliparous women. Continuous predictors were standardized using z scores. RESULTS: From a total enrolled cohort of 2336 nulliparous participants, 491 (21%) had an unplanned CD. Five parameters were determined to be the best combined predictors of CD. These were advancing maternal age (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.34), shorter maternal height (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.52 to 1.93), increasing body mass index (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.43), larger fetal abdominal circumference (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.38), and larger fetal head circumference (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.42). A nomogram was developed to provide an individualized risk assessment to predict CD in clinical practice, with excellent calibration and discriminative ability (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, D statistic, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.30) with a misclassification rate of 0.21 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.25). CONCLUSION: Five parameters (maternal age, body mass index, height, fetal abdominal circumference, and fetal head circumference) can, in combination, be used to better determine the overall risk of CD in nulliparous women at term. A risk score can be used to inform women of their individualized probability of CD. This risk tool may be useful for reassuring most women regarding their likely success at achieving an uncomplicated vaginal delivery as well as selecting those patients with such a high risk for CD that they should avoid a trial of labor. Such a risk tool has the potential to greatly improve planning hospital service needs and minimizing patient risk. PMID: 28213060 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Breastfeeding, Cognitive and Noncognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Population Study.

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Breastfeeding, Cognitive and Noncognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Population Study. Pediatrics. 2017 Apr;139(4): Authors: Girard LC, Doyle O, Tremblay RE Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is mixed evidence from correlational studies that breastfeeding impacts children's development. Propensity score matching with large samples can be an effective tool to remove potential bias from observed confounders in correlational studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of breastfeeding on children's cognitive and noncognitive development at 3 and 5 years of age. METHODS: Participants included ∼8000 families from the Growing Up in Ireland longitudinal infant cohort, who were identified from the Child Benefit Register and randomly selected to participate. Parent and teacher reports and standardized assessments were used to collect information on children's problem behaviors, expressive vocabulary, and cognitive abilities at age 3 and 5 years. Breastfeeding information was collected via maternal report. Propensity score matching was used to compare the average treatment effects on those who were breastfed. RESULTS: Before matching, breastfeeding was associated with better development on almost every outcome. After matching and adjustment for multiple testing, only 1 of the 13 outcomes remained statistically significant: children's hyperactivity (difference score, -0.84; 95% confidence interval, -1.33 to -0.35) at age 3 years for children who were breastfed for at least 6 months. No statistically significant differences were observed postmatching on any outcome at age 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Although 1 positive benefit of breastfeeding was found by using propensity score matching, the effect size was modest in practical terms. No support was found for statistically significant gains at age 5 years, suggesting that the earlier observed benefit from breastfeeding may not be maintained once children enter school. PMID: 28348200 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Multiple-micronutrient supplementation for women during pregnancy.

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Multiple-micronutrient supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 04 13;4:CD004905 Authors: Haider BA, Bhutta ZA Abstract BACKGROUND: Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies often coexist among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. They are exacerbated in pregnancy due to the increased demands, leading to potentially adverse effects on the mother and developing fetus. Though supplementation with MMNs has been recommended earlier because of the evidence of impact on pregnancy outcomes, a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the replacement of iron and folic acid supplementation with MMNs. Since the last update of this Cochrane review, evidence from a few large trials has recently been made available, the inclusion of which is critical to inform policy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits of oral multiple-micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal, fetal and infant health outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (11 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved articles and key reviews. We also contacted experts in the field for additional and ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All prospective randomised controlled trials evaluating MMN supplementation with iron and folic acid during pregnancy and its effects on the pregnancy outcome were eligible, irrespective of language or the publication status of the trials. We included cluster-randomised trials, but quasi-randomised trials were excluded. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Nineteen trials (involving 138,538 women) were identified as eligible for inclusion in this review but only 17 trials (involving 137,791 women) contributed data to the review. Fifteen of these 17 trials were carried out in low and middle-income countries and compared MMN supplements with iron and folic acid versus iron with or without folic acid. Two trials carried out in the UK compared MMN with a placebo. MMN with iron and folic acid versus iron, with or without folic acid (15 trials): MMN resulted in a significant decrease in the number of newborn infants identified as low birthweight (LBW) (average risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 0.91; high-quality evidence) or small-for-gestational age (SGA) (average RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.98; moderate-quality evidence). No significant differences were shown for other maternal and pregnancy outcomes: preterm births (average RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.03; high-quality evidence), stillbirth (average RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.87, 1.09; high-quality evidence), maternal anaemia in the third trimester (average RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.24), miscarriage (average RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.03), maternal mortality (average RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.48), perinatal mortality (average RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.13; high-quality evidence), neonatal mortality (average RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.22; high-quality evidence), or risk of delivery via a caesarean section (average RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.46).A number of prespecified, clinically important outcomes could not be assessed due to insufficient or non-available data. Single trials reported results for: very preterm birth < 34 weeks, macrosomia, side-effects of supplements, nutritional status of children, and congenital anomalies including neural tube defects and neurodevelopmental outcome: Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) scores. None of these trials reported pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, premature rupture of membranes, cost of supplementation, and maternal well-being or satisfaction.When assessed according to GRADE criteria, the quality of evidence for the review's primary outcomes overall was good. Pooled results for primary outcomes were based on multiple trials with large sample sizes and precise estimates. The following outcomes were graded to be as of high quality: preterm birth, LBW, perinatal mortality, stillbirth and neonatal mortality. The outcome of SGA was graded to be of moderate quality, with evidence downgraded by one for funnel plot asymmetry and potential publication bias.We carried out sensitivity analysis excluding trials with high levels of sample attrition (> 20%); results were consistent with the main analysis except for the findings for SGA (average RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.00). We explored heterogeneity through subgroup analyses by maternal height and body mass index (BMI), timing of supplementation and dose of iron. Subgroup differences were observed for maternal BMI for the outcome preterm birth, with significant findings among women with low BMI. Subgroup differences were also observed for maternal BMI and maternal height for the outcome SGA, indicating a significant impact among women with higher maternal BMI and height. The overall analysis of perinatal mortality, although showed a non-significant effect of MMN supplements versus iron with or without folic acid, was found to have substantial statistical heterogeneity. Subgroup differences were observed for timing of supplementation for this outcome, indicating a significantly higher impact with late initiation of supplementation. The findings between subgroups for other primary outcomes were inconclusive. MMN versus placebo (two trials): A single trial in the UK found no clear differences between groups for preterm birth, SGA, LBW or maternal anaemia in the third trimester. A second trial reported the number of women with pre-eclampsia; there was no evidence of a difference between groups. Other outcomes were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the effect of MMN supplements with iron and folic acid in improving some birth outcomes. Overall, pregnant women who received MMN supplementation had fewer low birthweight babies and small-for-gestational-age babies. The findings, consistently observed in several systematic evaluations of evidence, provide a basis to guide the replacement of iron and folic acid with MMN supplements containing iron and folic acid for pregnant women in low and middle-income countries where MMN deficiencies are common among women of reproductive age. Efforts could focus on the integration of this intervention in maternal nutrition and antenatal care programs in low and middle-income countries. PMID: 28407219 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Presentation for care and antenatal management of HIV in the UK, 2009-2014.

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Presentation for care and antenatal management of HIV in the UK, 2009-2014. HIV Med. 2017 Mar;18(3):161-170 Authors: French CE, Thorne C, Byrne L, Cortina-Borja M, Tookey PA Abstract OBJECTIVES: Despite very low rates of vertical transmission of HIV in the UK overall, rates are higher among women starting antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) late. We investigated the timing of key elements of the care of HIV-positive pregnant women [antenatal care booking, HIV laboratory assessment (CD4 count and HIV viral load) and antenatal ART initiation], to assess whether clinical practice is changing in line with recommendations, and to investigate factors associated with delayed care. METHODS: We used the UK's National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood for 2009-2014. Data were analysed by fitting logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 5693 births were reported; 79.5% were in women diagnosed with HIV prior to that pregnancy. Median gestation at antenatal booking was 12.1 weeks [interquartile range (IQR) 10.0-15.6 weeks] and booking was significantly earlier during 2012-2014 vs. 2009-2011 (P < 0.001), although only in previously diagnosed women. Overall, 42.2% of pregnancies were booked late (≥ 13 gestational weeks). Among women not already on treatment, antenatal ART commenced at a median of 21.4 (IQR18.1-24.5) weeks and started significantly earlier in the most recent time period (P < 0.001). Compared with previously diagnosed women, those newly diagnosed during the current pregnancy booked later for antenatal care and started antenatal ART later (both P < 0.001). Multivariable analyses revealed demographic variations in access to or uptake of care, with groups including migrants and parous women initiating care later. CONCLUSIONS: Although women are accessing antenatal and HIV care earlier in pregnancy, some continue to face barriers to timely initiation of antenatal care and ART. PMID: 27476457 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Place of death of children with complex chronic conditions: cross-national study of 11 countries.

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Place of death of children with complex chronic conditions: cross-national study of 11 countries. Eur J Pediatr. 2017 Mar;176(3):327-335 Authors: Håkanson C, Öhlén J, Kreicbergs U, Cardenas-Turanzas M, Wilson DM, Loucka M, Frache S, Giovannetti L, Naylor W, Rhee Y, Ramos MR, Teno J, Beernaert K, Deliens L, Houttekier D, Cohen J Abstract Cross-national understanding of place of death is crucial for health service systems for their provision of efficient and equal access to paediatric palliative care. The objectives of this population-level study were to examine where children with complex chronic conditions (CCC) die and to investigate associations between places of death and sex, cause of death and country. The study used death certificate data of all deceased 1- to 17-year-old children (n = 40,624) who died in 2008, in 11 European and non-European countries. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine associations between place of death and other factors. Between 24.4 and 75.3% of all children 1-17 years in the countries died of CCC. Of these, between 6.7 and 42.4% died at home. In Belgium and the USA, all deaths caused by CCC other than malignancies were less likely to occur at home, whereas in Mexico and South Korea, deaths caused by neuromuscular diseases were more likely to occur at home than malignancies. In Mexico (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-1.00) and Sweden (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.15-0.83), girls had a significantly lower chance of dying at home than boys. CONCLUSION: This study shows large cross-national variations in place of death. These variations may relate to health system-related infrastructures and policies, and differences in cultural values related to place of death, although this needs further investigation. The patterns found in this study can inform the development of paediatric palliative care programs internationally. What is known: • There is a scarcity of population-level studies investigating where children with CCC die in different countries. • Cross-national understanding of place of death provides information to health care systems for providing efficient and equal access to paediatric palliative care. What is new : • There are large cross-national variations in the place of death of children with CCC, with few deathsoccuring at home in some countries whereas hospital deaths are generally most common. • In general, deaths caused by neuromuscular diseases and malignancies occur at home more often thanother CCC. PMID: 28070671 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mind-Mindedness in Parents of Looked-After Children.

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Mind-Mindedness in Parents of Looked-After Children. Dev Psychol. 2017 Jul 31;: Authors: Fishburn S, Meins E, Greenhow S, Jones C, Hackett S, Biehal N, Baldwin H, Cusworth L, Wade J Abstract The studies reported here aimed to test the proposal that mind-mindedness is a quality of personal relationships by assessing mind-mindedness in caregiver-child dyads in which the relationship has not spanned the child's life or in which the relationship has been judged dysfunctional. Studies 1 and 2 investigated differences in mind-mindedness between adoptive parents (ns = 89, 36) and biological parents from the general population (ns = 54, 114). Both studies found lower mind-mindedness in adoptive compared with biological parents. The results of Study 2 showed that this group difference was independent of parental mental health and could not fully be explained in terms of children's behavioral difficulties. Study 3 investigated differences in mind-mindedness in foster carers (n = 122), parents whose children had been the subject of a child protection plan (n = 172), and a community sample of biological parents (n = 128). The level of mind-mindedness in foster carers and parents who were involved with child protection services was identical and lower than that in the community sample; children's behavioral difficulties could not account for the difference between the 2 groups of biological parents. In all 3 studies, nonbiological carers' tendency to describe their children with reference to preadoption or placement experiences was negatively related to mind-mindedness. These findings are in line with mind-mindedness being a relational construct. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 28758783 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Autism spectrum disorder and early motor abnormalities: Connected or coincidental companions?

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Autism spectrum disorder and early motor abnormalities: Connected or coincidental companions? Res Dev Disabil. 2017 01;60:13-15 Authors: Setoh P, Marschik PB, Einspieler C, Esposito G Abstract Research in the past decade has produced a growing body of evidence showing that motor abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are the rule rather than the exception. The paper by Chinello and colleagues furthers our understanding of the importance of studying motor functions in ASD by testing a non-clinical population of parents-infant triads. Chinello and colleagues' findings seem to suggest that subclinical motor impairments may exist in the typical population with inherited non-clinical ASD traits. Chinello and colleagues' discovery also urges us to ask why motor abnormalities exist in typically developing infants when their parents present some subclinical ASD traits. We believe that there are at least two possibilities. In the first possible scenario, motor impairments and ASD traits form a single cluster of symptoms unique to a subgroup of individuals with autism. A second possible scenario is that motor atypicalities are the first warning signs of vulnerability often associated with atypical development. In conclusion, Chinello et al.'s findings inform us that subclinical atypical phenotypes such as sociocommunicative anomalies may be related to subclinical motor performances in the next generation. This adds to our knowledge by shedding some light on the relation of vulnerability in one domain with vulnerability in another domain. PMID: 27863327 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Temperament and Early Stuttering Development: Cross-Sectional Findings From a Community Cohort.

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Temperament and Early Stuttering Development: Cross-Sectional Findings From a Community Cohort. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2017 Apr 14;60(4):772-784 Authors: Kefalianos E, Onslow M, Ukoumunne OC, Block S, Reilly S Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is an association between stuttering severity and behaviors and the expression of temperament characteristics, including precursors of anxiety. Method: We studied temperament characteristics of a prospectively recruited community cohort of children who stutter (N = 173) at ages 3, 4, and 6 years using the Short Temperament Scale STS (Prior, Sanson, Smart & Oberklaid, 2000). Results: Six of 131 statistical tests of association between stuttering severity and behaviors and temperament traits were statistically significant at the 5% level, which was no more than expected by chance alone. Conclusions: On the basis of parent responses to the STS, preschoolers who exhibited different levels of stuttering severity and behaviors did not generally express temperament traits differently from one another. Stuttering severity and stuttering behaviors were not associated with the precursors of anxiety. Overall, taking multiple tests into consideration, results show little evidence of association between stuttering severity and temperament up to 4 years of age or between stuttering behaviors and temperament up to 6 years of age. PMID: 28359081 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

More teens than ever aren’t getting enough sleep

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Authors: Twenge, J. M., Krizan,Z. & Hisler, G.

Source: San Diego State University. (2017, October 19). More teens than ever aren't getting enough sleep: A new study finds young people are likely sacrificing sleep to spend more time on their phones and tablets. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 23, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171019100416.htm

Effects of an afterschool community center physical activity program on fitness and body composition in obese youth.

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Effects of an afterschool community center physical activity program on fitness and body composition in obese youth. J Sports Sci. 2017 Jun;35(11):1034-1040 Authors: Crouter SE, Salas C, Wiecha J Abstract Physical activity (PA) promotes health in obese youth and is an important adjunct to medical weight management. Access to structured fitness programmes for obese, low-income youth is limited and potential benefits of such programmes are poorly understood. We describe an urban afterschool fitness programme for obese youth and participants' changes in fitness and body composition. A case series of 30 youth (age: 11.5 ± 2.5 years) with BMI ≥95th percentile and physician referral received a 24-wk programme scholarship. The programme, offered 4 times a week for 90-min.session, included aerobic, strength, and self-organised PA. Primary outcomes, measured at baseline (BL) time 1 (4-8 wk) and time 2 (12-16 wk) were BMI, per cent body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM), heart rate during a treadmill test, and muscular strength (one repetition maximum (1RM)) and endurance (reps at 70% of 1RM) on the leg press (LP) and chest press (CP). Average participation was 1.5 ± 0.6 visits per week for 18.7 ± 6.5 weeks. Between BL and time 2, LP and CP 1RM and endurance significantly improved (P < 0.05). Additionally, there was a significant interaction for %BF with boys losing 5.2% (P > 0.05) while girls lost 0% (>0.05). Obese youth attending an urban fitness programme for at least three months improved strength and body composition, but average attendance was below planned levels. PMID: 27433781 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood: a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years.

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Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood: a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years. BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 29;17(1):117 Authors: Bohman H, Låftman SB, Päären A, Jonsson U Abstract BACKGROUND: Earlier research has investigated the association between parental separation and long-term health outcomes among offspring, but few studies have assessed the potentially moderating role of mental health status in adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze whether parental separation in childhood predicts depression in adulthood and whether the pattern differs between individuals with and without earlier depression. METHODS: A community-based sample of individuals with adolescent depression in 1991-93 and matched non-depressed peers were followed up using a structured diagnostic interview after 15 years. The participation rate was 65% (depressed n = 227; non-depressed controls n = 155). Information on parental separation and conditions in childhood and adolescence was collected at baseline. The outcome was depression between the ages 19-31 years; information on depression was collected at the follow-up diagnostic interview. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Our analyses showed that depressed adolescents with separated parents had an excess risk of recurrence of depression in adulthood, compared with depressed adolescents with non-separated parents. In addition, among adolescents with depression, parental separation was associated with an increased risk of a switch to bipolar disorder in adulthood. Among the matched non-depressed peers, no associations between parental separation and adult depression or bipolar disorder were found. CONCLUSIONS: Parental separation may have long-lasting health consequences for vulnerable individuals who suffer from mental illness already in adolescence. PMID: 28356107 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]k

Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 31;17(1):120 Authors: Miyazaki C, Koyama M, Ota E, Swa T, Mlunde LB, Amiya RM, Tachibana Y, Yamamoto-Hanada K, Mori R Abstract BACKGROUND: Reports of frequent manifestation of allergic diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been the subject of mounting clinical interest. However, evidence supporting the association between ADHD and allergies is inconsistent and has yet to be systematically reviewed. The objective of this study was to compile and assess available studies on the association between ADHD and allergic diseases in children. METHODS: A comprehensive search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and CINAHL databases was completed in 23 November 2015. The inclusion criteria for studies were that the research assessed allergic diseases in children, 18 years of age and younger, with a diagnosis of ADHD and that a distinct comparison group was incorporated. Any comparative studies, encompassing both randomized controlled trials and observational studies, were considered for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed the quality of the selected studies by the use of validated assessment tools, performed data extraction and conducted meta-analysis according to Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. RESULTS: Five eligible studies were included in this systematic review. Of these studies, three were case-control and two were cross sectional studies. A majority of information from the five studies was classified as having low or unclear risk of bias. The meta-analysis showed an association between children with ADHD and asthma compared with the control groups (OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.57 - 2.07; five studies, low quality of evidence), but did not indicate an association between food allergy and ADHD (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.88 - 1.47; three studies very low quality of evidence). The odds of experiencing allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and allergic conjunctivitis were slightly higher in children with ADHD compared with control groups, though a substantial statistical heterogeneity was notable in the overall effect estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this review and meta-analysis show that children with ADHD are more likely to have asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and allergic conjunctivitis than their counterparts. Interventions including strategies for managing allergies in children with ADHD would be beneficial. PMID: 28359274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free play and children’s mental health

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Authors: Whitebread, D.

Source: The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health
Volume 1, No. 3, p167–169, November 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(17)30092-5

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE, HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE AND HEIGHT: EVIDENCE FROM TWO SAMPLES IN SAUDI ARABIA.

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CORRELATIONS BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE, HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE AND HEIGHT: EVIDENCE FROM TWO SAMPLES IN SAUDI ARABIA. J Biosoc Sci. 2017 Mar;49(2):276-280 Authors: Bakhiet SF, Essa YA, Dwieb AM, Elsayed AM, Sulman AS, Cheng H, Lynn R Abstract This study was based on two independent studies which in total consisted of 1812 school pupils aged 6-12 years in Saudi Arabia. Study I consisted of 1591 school pupils (609 boys and 982 girls) attending state schools, and Study II consisted of 211 boys with learning disabilities. Intelligence (measured using the Standard Progressive Matrices Plus for Study I and the Standard Progressive Matrices for Study II), head size and height were measured for the two samples. The results showed that intelligence was statistically significantly correlated with head circumference (r=0.350, p<0.001 for Study I and r=0.168, p<0.05 for Study II) and height (r=0.271, p<0.001 for Study I and r=0.178, p<0.05 for Study II). PMID: 27255353 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Bacterial microbiota of the upper respiratory tract and childhood asthma.

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Bacterial microbiota of the upper respiratory tract and childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Mar;139(3):826-834.e13 Authors: Depner M, Ege MJ, Cox MJ, Dwyer S, Walker AW, Birzele LT, Genuneit J, Horak E, Braun-Fahrländer C, Danielewicz H, Maier RM, Moffatt MF, Cookson WO, Heederik D, von Mutius E, Legatzki A Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma and healthy controls differ in bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract. The upper airways have been shown to reflect colonization of the lower airways, the actual site of inflammation in asthma, which is hardly accessible in population studies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the bacterial communities at 2 sites of the upper respiratory tract obtained from children from a rural area and to relate these to asthma. METHODS: The microbiota of 327 throat and 68 nasal samples from school-age farm and nonfarm children were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. RESULTS: Alterations in nasal microbiota but not of throat microbiota were associated with asthma. Children with asthma had lower α- and β-diversity of the nasal microbiota as compared with healthy control children. Furthermore, asthma presence was positively associated with a specific operational taxonomic unit from the genus Moraxella in children not exposed to farming, whereas in farm children Moraxella colonization was unrelated to asthma. In nonfarm children, Moraxella colonization explained the association between bacterial diversity and asthma to a large extent. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma was mainly associated with an altered nasal microbiota characterized by lower diversity and Moraxella abundance. Children living on farms might not be susceptible to the disadvantageous effect of Moraxella. Prospective studies may clarify whether Moraxella outgrowth is a cause or a consequence of loss in diversity. PMID: 27576124 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Quality of Life and Functional Vision in Children with Glaucoma.

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Quality of Life and Functional Vision in Children with Glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2017 Jul;124(7):1048-1055 Authors: Dahlmann-Noor A, Tailor V, Bunce C, Abou-Rayyah Y, Adams G, Brookes J, Khaw PT, Papadopoulos M Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of glaucoma on functional vision and on vision-related (VR) and health-related (HR) quality of life (QoL) in children up to 16 years of age. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred nineteen children 2 to 16 years of age (mean age, 9.4 years; standard deviation [SD], 4.56 years) with glaucoma and their parents. METHODS: Completion of 3 validated instruments for children to assess (1) functional visual ability (FVA) with the Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC), (2) VR QoL with the Impact of Vision Impairment for Children (IVI-C), and (3) HR QoL with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) version 4.0. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children, IVI-C, and PedsQL scores. RESULTS: Scores for FVA, VR QoL, and HR QoL were reduced in children with glaucoma: median CVAQC score, -1.24 (interquartile range [IQR], -2.2 to -0.11; range, -3.00 higher visual ability to +2.80 lower visual ability); mean IVI-C score, 67.3 (SD, 14.4; normal VR QoL, 96); median PedsQL self-report, 78.8 (IQR, 67.4-90.2); parent report, 71.2 (IQR, 55.7-85.8); and family impact score, 74.3 (IQR, 56.9-88.5; normal HR QoL, 100). Psychosocial subscores were lower than physical subscores on the PedsQL. Older children reported less impairment on CVAQC, IVI-C, and PedsQL than younger children. Parents reported greater impact on their child's HR QoL than children reported themselves. CONCLUSIONS: Glaucoma and its management have a marked impact on a child's FVA and QoL. Children with glaucoma report HR QoL scores similar to those described by children with severe congenital cardiac defects, who have undergone liver transplants, or who have acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID: 28385300 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Body mass index trajectories from 2 to 18 years – exploring differences between European cohorts.

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Body mass index trajectories from 2 to 18 years - exploring differences between European cohorts. Pediatr Obes. 2017 Apr;12(2):102-109 Authors: Graversen L, Howe LD, Sørensen TI, Sovio U, Hohwü L, Tilling K, Laitinen J, Taanila A, Pouta A, Järvelin MR, Obel C Abstract BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight in most high-income countries. Within northern Europe, prevalence tends to be higher in the UK compared with the Scandinavian countries. We aimed to study differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories between large cohorts of children from UK and Scandinavian populations. METHODS: We compared BMI trajectories in participants from the English Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children born in 1991-1993 (ALSPAC) (N = 6517), the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts born in 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 3321) and 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4764), and the Danish Aarhus Birth Cohort born in 1990-1992 (ABC) (N = 1920). We used multilevel models to estimate BMI trajectories from 2 to 18 years. We explored whether cohort differences were explained by maternal BMI, height, education or smoking during pregnancy and whether differences were attributable to changes in the degree of skew in the BMI distribution. RESULTS: Differences in mean BMI between the cohorts were small but emerged early and persisted in most cases across childhood. Girls in ALSPAC had a higher BMI than all other cohorts throughout childhood, e.g. compared with the NFBC1986 BMI was 2.2-3.5% higher. For boys, the difference emerging over time (comparing the two NFBC's) exceeded the differences across populations (comparing NFBC1986, ABC and ALSPAC). BMI distribution demonstrated increasing right skew with age. CONCLUSION: Population-level differences between cohorts were small, tended to emerge very early, persisted across childhood, and demonstrated an increase in the right-hand tail of the BMI distribution. PMID: 26918667 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mental health and well-being of parents caring for a ventilator-dependent child.

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Mental health and well-being of parents caring for a ventilator-dependent child. Nurs Child Young People. 2017 Jun 12;29(5):33-40 Authors: Lee J, Lynn F Abstract An integrative literature review was undertaken to determine the social and emotional effects on the mental health and well-being of parents of children requiring long-term ventilation at home. Six studies were included. Recurrent themes reported in the literature included lack of formal and informal support, financial adversity, limited access to respite care and feelings of social isolation. These themes were associated with depressive symptoms and were consistently reported to have a negative effect on parental mental health and well-being. Healthcare professionals have a part to play in improving parents' coping skills, resilience and resourcefulness to help reduce adverse social and emotional effects on their mental health and well-being. PMID: 28604218 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Minimising wheeze in the under-threes: developing a respiratory assessment clinic for children.

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Minimising wheeze in the under-threes: developing a respiratory assessment clinic for children. Nurs Child Young People. 2017 Mar 06;29(2):26-31 Authors: Jane Wood E Abstract A reluctance to diagnose asthma in children under three who have recurrent cough and wheeze causes delays in the commencement of appropriate asthma treatment. Timely inhaled corticosteroid use may reduce asthma exacerbations and unnecessary visits to the emergency department and GPs. To address this delay, an advanced nurse practitioner in one children's community nursing team set up a respiratory assessment clinic for children under three who had recurrent respiratory difficulties. This article describes the rationale and the evidence base that supports a clinic of this kind and reports on its initial results. PMID: 28262075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluation of a drop-in clinic for young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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Evaluation of a drop-in clinic for young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nurs Child Young People. 2017 Jun 12;29(5):24-32 Authors: Sfar-Gandoura H, Ryan GS, Melvin G Abstract Aims To implement and evaluate a nurse-led, multi-agency drop-in clinic for young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method A repeated measures observational study over 12 months exploring clinic attendance and user satisfaction, crisis management and did not attend (DNA) rates, consultant time spent with patients, benefits to quality of care, and service flexibility. Results A total of 62 service users participated. A significant improvement in service user experience was observed (P=0.001). Crisis management attendances significantly increased (P=0.005). DNA rates did not reduce significantly (P=0.057). Service users attended for their medication review before or on their due date (P=0.011). Those who needed to were able to spend more time with the staff (P=0.001). Conclusion The clinic improved service accessibility and flexibility. It allowed adherence to clinical guidance, including uptake of psychosocial interventions. There was an overwhelmingly positive improvement in service user experience. Importantly, as contact with the ADHD nurse specialists increased, this significantly reduced the amount of time consultant community paediatricians spent with service users. Further research should examine the cost-effectiveness and longitudinal effect of the drop-in model. PMID: 28604214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Transvaginal cervical length measurement at 22- to 26-week pregnancy in prediction of preterm births in twin pregnancies.

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Transvaginal cervical length measurement at 22- to 26-week pregnancy in prediction of preterm births in twin pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 Mar;30(6):729-732 Authors: El-Gharib MN, Albehoty SB Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive role of transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length (CL) at 22-26 weeks of gestation in determining preterm deliveries in twin pregnancies. METHODS: The study included 150 twin pregnancies. CL was measured by transvaginal ultrasonography at 22-26 weeks. Signs of preterm labor, ruptured membranes, vaginal bleeding, patients with systemic disease, and cervical incompetencies were excluded. The patients had monthly digital cervical examinations but no routine TVCL ultrasound examinations. The primary outcome was spontaneous preterm birth at before 37 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: Ninety-two percent of twin pregnancies delivered by cesarean section and 16% babies had a neonatal intensive care unit requisitioned. Ninety-two patients were delivered in smaller than 37 gestational weeks and the mean CL measurement (CLM) was <37.64 ± 6.23 mm. According to the ROC curve analysis, CLM was found to be a discriminating parameter in patients. The area under the curve, cutoff values, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.794, 34.95, and 70-80%; respectively (p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: In women with twin pregnancy, the risk of preterm birth can be evaluated using the ultrasonographic measurement of CL at 22-26 weeks of gestation. PMID: 27125463 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

What Can Secondary School Students Teach Educators and School Nurses About Student Engagement in Health Promotion? A Scoping Review.

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What Can Secondary School Students Teach Educators and School Nurses About Student Engagement in Health Promotion? A Scoping Review. J Sch Nurs. 2017 Feb;33(1):30-42 Authors: Beck AJ, Reilly SM Abstract Student engagement represents a critical component of a comprehensive school health (CSH) approach to health promotion. Nevertheless, questions remain about its implementation. This scoping review updates the field of student engagement in health promotion. Of the 1,388 located articles, 14 qualify for inclusion in this study. An analysis reveals four themes. CSH programs that incorporate student engagement promote a sense of belonging to a community, encourage meaningful involvement, give voice to student concerns, and advance supportive relationships. This study finds a lack of research regarding student engagement in health promotion but confirms that student participation in CSH initiatives contributes to a sense of ownership. Consequently, we can infer that student ownership of health promotion takes place through their meaningful engagement and can effect social change. PMID: 27852826 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

End-of-life experiences of family caregivers of deceased patients with cancer: A nation-wide survey.

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End-of-life experiences of family caregivers of deceased patients with cancer: A nation-wide survey. Psychooncology. 2017 Jul 20;: Authors: Hirooka K, Otani H, Morita T, Miura T, Fukahori H, Aoyama M, Kizawa Y, Shima Y, Tsuneto S, Miyashita M Abstract OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was (1) to describe the end-of-life experience of family caregivers of cancer patients, (2) to describe talking about death and dying of the patient to minor children, and (3) to examine the association of family caregivers' experiences by their characteristics and talking about death and dying of the patient. METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide survey of bereaved family caregivers was conducted. In total, 968 questionnaires were sent to bereaved family caregivers, and 711 were completed and returned. Fifty-three responses indicating patients had minor children were analyzed. Univariate analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed. RESULTS: Family caregivers' experiences were divided into three domains by PCA: protect children from the patient's imminent death, little regard for the children, and worry and concern about the children's emotional reaction. Family caregivers' common experiences were as follows: "I wanted to know how the children felt," "I wanted to avoid making the children confused," and "I did not have much time to talk with and/or play with the children." About 30% of family caregivers reported that they "did not talk" about death and dying of patients to minor children. Spouses of patients and family caregivers who did not talk about death tended to experience distress and worry. CONCLUSIONS: Most family caregivers experienced worry and fear regarding minor children's emotional reaction, therefore, clinicians need to explain children's emotional and psychological reaction to family caregivers when a patient is at the end-of-life. PMID: 28727892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Skin microbiome before development of atopic dermatitis: Early colonization with commensal staphylococci at 2 months is associated with a lower risk of atopic dermatitis at 1 year.

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Skin microbiome before development of atopic dermatitis: Early colonization with commensal staphylococci at 2 months is associated with a lower risk of atopic dermatitis at 1 year. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Jan;139(1):166-172 Authors: Kennedy EA, Connolly J, Hourihane JO, Fallon PG, McLean WH, Murray D, Jo JH, Segre JA, Kong HH, Irvine AD Abstract BACKGROUND: Disease flares of established atopic dermatitis (AD) are generally associated with a low-diversity skin microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus dominance. The temporal transition of the skin microbiome between early infancy and the dysbiosis of established AD is unknown. METHODS: We randomly selected 50 children from the Cork Babies After SCOPE: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact Using Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints (BASELINE) longitudinal birth cohort for microbiome sampling at 3 points in the first 6 months of life at 4 skin sites relevant to AD: the antecubital and popliteal fossae, nasal tip, and cheek. We identified 10 infants with AD and compared them with 10 randomly selected control infants with no AD. We performed bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and analysis directly from clinical samples. RESULTS: Bacterial community structures and diversity shifted over time, suggesting that age strongly affects the skin microbiome in infants. Unlike established AD, these patients with infantile AD did not have noticeably dysbiotic communities before or with disease and were not colonized by S aureus. In comparing patients and control subjects, infants who had affected skin at month 12 had statistically significant differences in bacterial communities on the antecubital fossa at month 2 compared with infants who were unaffected at month 12. In particular, commensal staphylococci were significantly less abundant in infants affected at month 12, suggesting that this genus might protect against the later development of AD. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that 12-month-old infants with AD were not colonized with S aureus before having AD. Additional studies are needed to confirm whether colonization with commensal staphylococci modulates skin immunity and attenuates development of AD. PMID: 27609659 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Frenotomy for tongue-tie in newborn infants.

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Frenotomy for tongue-tie in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 03 11;3:CD011065 Authors: O'Shea JE, Foster JP, O'Donnell CP, Breathnach D, Jacobs SE, Todd DA, Davis PG Abstract BACKGROUND: Tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, is a condition whereby the lingual frenulum attaches near the tip of the tongue and may be short, tight and thick. Tongue-tie is present in 4% to 11% of newborns. Tongue-tie has been cited as a cause of poor breastfeeding and maternal nipple pain. Frenotomy, which is commonly performed, may correct the restriction to tongue movement and allow more effective breastfeeding with less maternal nipple pain. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether frenotomy is safe and effective in improving ability to feed orally among infants younger than three months of age with tongue-tie (and problems feeding).Also, to perform subgroup analysis to determine the following.• Severity of tongue-tie before frenotomy as measured by a validated tool (e.g. Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (ATLFF) scores < 11; scores ≥ 11) (Hazelbaker 1993).• Gestational age at birth (< 37 weeks' gestation; 37 weeks' gestation and above).• Method of feeding (breast or bottle).• Age at frenotomy (≤ 10 days of age; > 10 days to three months of age).• Severity of feeding difficulty (infants with feeding difficulty affecting weight gain (as assessed by infant's not regaining birth weight by day 14 or falling off centiles); infants with symptomatic feeding difficulty but thriving (greater than birth weight by day 14 and tracking centiles). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL up to January 2017, as well as previous reviews including cross-references, expert informants and journal handsearching. We searched clinical trials databases for ongoing and recently completed trials. We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, quasi-randomised controlled trials or cluster-randomised trials that compared frenotomy versus no frenotomy or frenotomy versus sham procedure in newborn infants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors extracted from the reports of clinical trials data regarding clinical outcomes including infant feeding, maternal nipple pain, duration of breastfeeding, cessation of breastfeeding, infant pain, excessive bleeding, infection at the site of frenotomy, ulceration at the site of frenotomy, damage to the tongue and/or submandibular ducts and recurrence of tongue-tie. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Five randomised trials met our inclusion criteria (n = 302). Three studies objectively measured infant breastfeeding using standardised assessment tools. Pooled analysis of two studies (n = 155) showed no change on a 10-point feeding scale following frenotomy (mean difference (MD) -0.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.6 to 0.5 units on a 10-point feeding scale). A third study (n = 58) showed objective improvement on a 12-point feeding scale (MD 3.5, 95% CI 3.1 to 4.0 units of a 12-point feeding scale). Four studies objectively assessed maternal pain. Pooled analysis of three studies (n = 212) based on a 10-point pain scale showed a reduction in maternal pain scores following frenotomy (MD -0.7, 95% CI -1.4 to -0.1 units on a 10-point pain scale). A fourth study (n = 58) also showed a reduction in pain scores on a 50-point pain scale (MD -8.6, 95% CI -9.4 to -7.8 units on a 50-point pain scale). All studies reported no adverse effects following frenotomy. These studies had serious methodological shortcomings. They included small sample sizes, and only two studies blinded both mothers and assessors; one did not attempt blinding for mothers nor for assessors. All studies offered frenotomy to controls, and most controls underwent the procedure, suggesting lack of equipoise. No study was able to report whether frenotomy led to long-term successful breastfeeding. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Frenotomy reduced breastfeeding mothers' nipple pain in the short term. Investigators did not find a consistent positive effect on infant breastfeeding. Researchers reported no serious complications, but the total number of infants studied was small. The small number of trials along with methodological shortcomings limits the certainty of these findings. Further randomised controlled trials of high methodological quality are necessary to determine the effects of frenotomy. PMID: 28284020 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Collaboration: A critical exploration of the care continuum.

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Collaboration: A critical exploration of the care continuum. Nurs Inq. 2017 Apr;24(2): Authors: Penny RA, Windsor C Abstract The purpose of this research was to explore the concept of collaboration within a specific healthcare context and to include the perspectives of healthcare users, a position largely lacking in previous studies. In applying a critical theoretical approach, the focus was on, as an exemplar, mothers with newborn babies who had spent more than 48 hr in a special care nursery. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with child health nurses, midwives and mothers. The three key theoretical findings on collaboration generated in the study point to layers of meanings around identity, knowledge and institutions of care. Findings from the interview data analysis were further examined through the lens of key policy documents. The research outcomes indicate that the concept of collaboration serves an important function in healthcare in obscuring the complexities and ambiguities that characterise the care continuum. The study concludes the need for a more critical approach to the assumptions that underlie the language of collaboration and the implications for practice in healthcare. PMID: 27905162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Multi-agency practice for developing a blended diet for children fed via gastrostomy.

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Multi-agency practice for developing a blended diet for children fed via gastrostomy. Nurs Child Young People. 2017 Jul 10;29(6):22-25 Authors: Thomas S Abstract The administration of a blended diet via a gastrostomy tube to children with complex needs is an evolving area of practice. Healthcare professionals must provide guidance, promote best practice and optimise patient safety where patients and families choose a blended diet in preference to the prescribed commercial feed. The Aneurin Bevan Health University Health Board in Newport, Wales, took a collaborative approach, by working with parents as equal partners, to enable a child with complex needs to receive a blended diet at school. The development of a protocol and risk-assessed approach enabled the delivery of bespoke flexible care that met the holistic needs of the child and family and improved the child's quality of life. The initiative also led to positive outcomes for the school and wider community. PMID: 28691635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Community Palliative Care Nurses’ Challenges and Coping Strategies on Delivering Home-Based Pediatric Palliative Care.

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Community Palliative Care Nurses' Challenges and Coping Strategies on Delivering Home-Based Pediatric Palliative Care. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2017 Mar;34(2):125-131 Authors: Chong L, Abdullah A Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the experience of community palliative care nurses providing home care to children. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted at the 3 community palliative care provider organizations in greater Kuala Lumpur from August to October 2014. Data were collected with semistructured interviews with 16 nurses who have provided care to children and was analyzed using thematic analysis. Two categories were identified: (1) challenges nurses faced and (2) coping strategies. The themes identified from the categories are (1) communication challenges, (2) inadequate training and knowledge, (3) personal suffering, (4) challenges of the system, (5) intrapersonal coping skills, (6) interpersonal coping strategies, and (7) systemic supports. CONCLUSIONS: These results reinforces the need for integration of pediatric palliative care teaching and communication skills training into all undergraduate health care programs. Provider organizational support to meet the specific needs of the nurses in the community can help retain them in their role. It will also be important to develop standards for current and new palliative care services to ensure delivery of quality pediatric palliative care. PMID: 26424764 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Relationship Between Labor and Delivery Unit Management Practices and Maternal Outcomes.

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Relationship Between Labor and Delivery Unit Management Practices and Maternal Outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jul 07;: Authors: Plough AC, Galvin G, Li Z, Lipsitz SR, Alidina S, Henrich NJ, Hirschhorn LR, Berry WR, Gawande AA, Peter D, McDonald R, Caldwell DL, Muri JH, Bingham D, Caughey AB, Declercq ER, Shah NT Abstract OBJECTIVE: To define, measure, and characterize key competencies of managing labor and delivery units in the United States and assess the associations between unit management and maternal outcomes. METHODS: We developed and administered a management measurement instrument using structured telephone interviews with both the primary nurse and physician managers at 53 diverse hospitals across the United States. A trained interviewer scored the managers' interview responses based on management practices that ranged from most reactive (lowest scores) to most proactive (highest scores). We established instrument validity by conducting site visits among a subsample of 11 hospitals and established reliability using interrater comparison. Using a factor analysis, we identified three themes of management competencies: management of unit culture, patient flow, and nursing. We constructed patient-level regressions to assess the independent association between these management themes and maternal outcomes. RESULTS: Proactive management of unit culture and nursing was associated with a significantly higher risk of primary cesarean delivery in low-risk patients (relative risk [RR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.66 and RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.13-1.92, respectively). Proactive management of unit culture was also associated with a significantly higher risk of prolonged length of stay (RR 4.13, 95% CI 1.98-8.64), postpartum hemorrhage (RR 2.57, 95% CI 1.58-4.18), and blood transfusion (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.12-3.13). Proactive management of patient flow and nursing was associated with a significantly lower risk of prolonged length of stay (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.12-0.46 and RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.62, respectively). CONCLUSION: Labor and delivery unit management varies dramatically across and within hospitals in the United States. Some proactive management practices may be associated with increased risk of primary cesarean delivery and maternal morbidity. Other proactive management practices may be associated with decreased risk of prolonged length of stay, indicating a potential opportunity to safely improve labor and delivery unit efficiency. PMID: 28697107 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Seizure management in children requiring palliative care: a review of current practice.

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Seizure management in children requiring palliative care: a review of current practice. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2017 Jul 07;: Authors: Harris N, Baba M, Mellor C, Rogers R, Taylor K, Beringer A, Sharples P Abstract OBJECTIVES: Controlling seizures in children approaching death can be difficult, and there is a limited evidence base to guide best practice. We compared current practice against the guidance for seizure management produced by the Association of Paediatric Palliative Medicine (APPM). METHODS: Retrospective case note review of episodes of challenging seizure management in children receiving end-of-life care over a 10-year period (2006-2015) in the south-west region of England. RESULTS: We reviewed 19 admissions, in 18 individuals. Six (33%) had a malignancy, nine (50%) had a progressive neurodegenerative condition and three (17%) had a static neurological condition with associated epilepsy. Thirteen (72%) died in their local hospice, four (22%) at home, and one (6%) in hospital. Seventeen of 19 episodes involved the use of subcutaneous or intravenous midazolam infusion, for a mean of 11 days (range 3-27). There was a wide range of starting doses of midazolam, and 9/17 (53%) received final doses in excess of current dose recommendations. Six individuals received subcutaneous phenobarbital infusions, with four of these (67%) receiving final doses in excess of current dose recommendations. Plans for adjustments of infusion rates, maximal doses or alternative approaches should treatment fail were inconsistent or absent. In 16/18 (88%) cases seizures were successfully controlled prior to the day of the child's death. Staff found the experience of managing seizures at end of life challenging and stressful. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological approaches to seizure management in end-of-life care are variable, often exceeding APPM dose recommendations. Despite this, safe and effective seizure control was possible in all settings. PMID: 28687558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pediatric Primary Care Involvement in End-of-Life Care for Children.

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Pediatric Primary Care Involvement in End-of-Life Care for Children. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2017 Mar;34(2):135-141 Authors: Lindley LC, Nageswaran S Abstract OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between pediatric primary care involvement and hospice and home health care use at end of life. METHODS: California Medicaid data were used to estimate the relationship between pediatric primary care involvement and use of hospice and home health care using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Of the 2037 children who died between 2007 and 2010, 11% used hospice and 23% used home health. Among all children, primary care was not related to hospice use and was associated with home health use, usual source of care (OR = 1.83, P < .05), comprehensive care (OR = 1.60, P < .05), and continuous care (low: OR = 1.49, P < .05; moderate: OR = 2.57, P < .05; high: OR = 2.12, P < .05). Primary care for children aged 15 to 20 years was related to hospice use, usual source of care (OR = 4.06, P < .05) and continuous care (low: OR = 4.92, P < .05; moderate OR = 4.09, P < .05; high OR = 3.92, P < .05). Primary care for children under 5 years was associated with home health use, usual source of care (OR = 2.59, P < .05), comprehensive care (OR = 2.49, P < .05), and continuous care (low: OR = 2.22, P < .05; moderate: OR = 3.64, P < .05; high: OR = 3.62, P < .05). For children aged 6 to 14 years, this association was seen with continuous care (moderate: OR = 2.38, P < .05; high: OR = 2.13, P < .05). Home health for children aged 15 to 20 years was related to continuous care (moderate: OR = 2.32, P < .05). CONCLUSION: Primary care involvement affected hospice use among older age-groups and home health use among younger age-groups. These findings underscore the need for clinical knowledge about end-of-life care for children of all ages among primary care providers. PMID: 26430133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Child-Directed Interaction Training for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Parent and Child Outcomes.

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Child-Directed Interaction Training for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Parent and Child Outcomes. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2017 Jan-Feb;46(1):101-109 Authors: Ginn NC, Clionsky LN, Eyberg SM, Warner-Metzger C, Abner JP Abstract This study examined the efficacy of the Child-Directed Interaction Training (CDIT) phase of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Thirty mother-child dyads with children ages 3-7 years with a diagnosis of ASD participated in this randomized controlled study. Following manualized CDIT, statistically significant and meaningful improvements in child disruptive behavior and social awareness as well as maternal distress associated with child disruptive behavior occurred. Across 8 sessions, mothers learned to provide positive attention to their children's appropriate social and play behaviors. Both child and parent changes were maintained at 6-week follow-up. A relatively brief, time-limited, and accessible intervention may be efficacious for improving child and parent behaviors in families of young children with ASD. By decreasing child disruptive behaviors, CDIT may also help to prepare children to benefit further from future interventions. PMID: 25785646 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Diagnosis and management of Silver-Russell syndrome: first international consensus statement.

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Diagnosis and management of Silver-Russell syndrome: first international consensus statement. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2017 Feb;13(2):105-124 Authors: Wakeling EL, Brioude F, Lokulo-Sodipe O, O'Connell SM, Salem J, Bliek J, Canton AP, Chrzanowska KH, Davies JH, Dias RP, Dubern B, Elbracht M, Giabicani E, Grimberg A, Grønskov K, Hokken-Koelega AC, Jorge AA, Kagami M, Linglart A, Maghnie M, Mohnike K, Monk D, Moore GE, Murray PG, Ogata T, Petit IO, Russo S, Said E, Toumba M, Tümer Z, Binder G, Eggermann T, Harbison MD, Temple IK, Mackay DJ, Netchine I Abstract This Consensus Statement summarizes recommendations for clinical diagnosis, investigation and management of patients with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), an imprinting disorder that causes prenatal and postnatal growth retardation. Considerable overlap exists between the care of individuals born small for gestational age and those with SRS. However, many specific management issues exist and evidence from controlled trials remains limited. SRS is primarily a clinical diagnosis; however, molecular testing enables confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and defines the subtype. A 'normal' result from a molecular test does not exclude the diagnosis of SRS. The management of children with SRS requires an experienced, multidisciplinary approach. Specific issues include growth failure, severe feeding difficulties, gastrointestinal problems, hypoglycaemia, body asymmetry, scoliosis, motor and speech delay and psychosocial challenges. An early emphasis on adequate nutritional status is important, with awareness that rapid postnatal weight gain might lead to subsequent increased risk of metabolic disorders. The benefits of treating patients with SRS with growth hormone include improved body composition, motor development and appetite, reduced risk of hypoglycaemia and increased height. Clinicians should be aware of possible premature adrenarche, fairly early and rapid central puberty and insulin resistance. Treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues can delay progression of central puberty and preserve adult height potential. Long-term follow up is essential to determine the natural history and optimal management in adulthood. PMID: 27585961 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Recruitment Challenges and Enrollment Observations from a Community Based Intervention (Mothers In Motion) for Low-Income Overweight and Obese Women.

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Recruitment Challenges and Enrollment Observations from a Community Based Intervention (Mothers In Motion) for Low-Income Overweight and Obese Women. Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2017 Mar;5:26-33 Authors: Chang MW, Nitzke S, Brown R, Egan MJB, Bendekgey CM, Buist D Abstract BACKGROUND: Mothers In Motion (MIM), a randomized controlled trial, aimed to help young, low-income overweight and obese mothers prevent weight gain by promoting stress management, healthy eating, and physical activity. This paper describes MIM recruitment challenges and reports demographic characteristics affecting enrollment. METHODS: Participants who were African American or Non-Hispanic White were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Michigan. We faced numerous recruitment challenges and learned that several strategies facilitated recruitment. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine demographic characteristics that affect enrollment. RESULTS: Women who had a higher body mass index (BMI, OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.10); were at late postpartum, (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10 - 1.40), were breastfeeding (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.34 -10.65); or were at early postpartum and breastfeeding (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.22 - 0.81) were more likely to enroll than their counterparts. Compared to African American women, Non-Hispanic White women were more likely to enroll (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29 - 2.42). Also, women who were non-smokers (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.40 - 0.73) or had a higher education were more likely to enroll (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.42) than those who smoked or had a lower education. CONCLUSION: Future lifestyle behavioral intervention studies for similar target audiences may consider tailoring their recruitment messages based on relevant participant demographic characteristics identified as potential determinants of enrollment in this study. PMID: 28685168 [PubMed - in process]

Childhood family structure and women’s adult overweight risk: A longitudinal study.

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Childhood family structure and women's adult overweight risk: A longitudinal study. Scand J Public Health. 2017 Jul;45(5):511-519 Authors: Chaparro MP, de Luna X, Häggström J, Ivarsson A, Lindgren U, Nilsson K, Koupil I Abstract AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether women's adult overweight and obesity risk was associated with their childhood family structure, measured as their mothers' marital status history, during the women's first 18 years of life. METHODS: Using linked register data, we analyzed 30,584 primiparous women born in Sweden in 1975 who were between 19-35 years of age when their height and pre-pregnancy weight was recorded. The outcomes were women's overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and the predictor was mothers' marital status history, which was summarized using sequence analysis. We carried out nested logistic regression models adjusting for women's age and maternal sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Mothers' marital status history was summarized into six clusters: stable marriage, stable cohabitation, married then divorcing, cohabiting then separating, varied transitions, and not with father. In fully adjusted models and compared with women whose mothers belonged to the stable marriage cluster: (1) women whose mothers belonged to the other marital status clusters had higher odds of overweight/obesity (odds ratio (OR) ranging 1.15-1.19; p < 0.05); and (2) women whose mothers belonged to the stable cohabitation (OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.52), cohabiting then separating (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.01-1.49), varied transitions (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.11-1.39), and not with father (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.00-1.54) clusters had higher odds of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Women whose mothers were not in stable marriage relationships had higher odds of being overweight or obese in adulthood. The finding that even women raised in the context of stable cohabitation had higher odds of being overweight or obese is intriguing as these relationships are socially accepted in Sweden. PMID: 28482752 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Outcomes Associated With Neonatal Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

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Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Outcomes Associated With Neonatal Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Population-Based Case-Control Study. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Mar 01;171(3):230-238 Authors: Cole L, Dewey D, Letourneau N, Kaplan BJ, Chaput K, Gallagher C, Hodge J, Floer A, Kirton A Abstract Importance: Hemorrhage into the brain of term newborns often results in major injury and lifelong disability. The clinical epidemiology of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (NHS) remains undefined, hindering the development of strategies to improve outcomes. Objective: To characterize the incidence, types, presentations, associated factors, and outcomes of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based, nested case-control study. The Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project, a provincial registry, ascertained NHS cases using exhaustive diagnostic code searching (1992-2010, >2500 medical record reviews). Prospective cases were captured through the Calgary Pediatric Stroke Program (2007-2014). Participants included term neonates with magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed NHS including primary and secondary intracerebral hemorrhage, hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic injury, and presumed perinatal hemorrhagic stroke. Control infants with common data were recruited from a population-based study (4 to 1 ratio). Main Outcomes and Measures: Infants with NHS underwent structured medical record review using data-capture forms and blinded scoring of neuroimaging. Clinical risk factor common data elements were explored using logistic regression. Provincial live births were obtained from Statistics Canada. Outcomes were extrapolated to the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure. Results: We identified 86 cases: 51 infants (59%) with NHS, of which 32 (67%) were idiopathic, 30 (35%) were hemorrhagic transformation of primary ischemic injuries (14 with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, 11 with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and 5 with neonatal arterial ischemic stroke), and 5 were presumed perinatal hemorrhagic stroke. Sixty-two percent were male. Incidence of pure NHS was 1 in 9500 live births and 1 in 6300 for all forms. Most presented in the first week of life with seizures and encephalopathy. Acute neurosurgical intervention was rare (3 of 86 total cases; 3.5%). Temporal lobe was the most common NHS location (16 of 51 pure NHS cases; 31%). A primary cause was evident in 19 of the 51 cases of non-hemorrhagic transformation NHS (37%). Idiopathic NHS was independently associated with lower maternal age (odds ratio [OR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.94), primiparity (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.18-7.50), prior spontaneous abortion (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.53), difficult fetal transition (bradycardia [OR, 15.0; 95% CI, 2.19-101.9] and low Apgar [OR, 14.3; 95% CI, 2.77-73.5]), and small for gestational age (OR, 14.3; 95% CI, 1.62-126.1). Follow-up of 50 cases at a median of 37 months demonstrated poor neurological outcomes in 21 patients (44%). Conclusions and Relevance: Neonatal hemorrhagic stroke is more common than previously reported, occurring in at least 1 in 6300 live births. Etiologies are approximately equally distributed between idiopathic, secondary, and hemorrhagic transformation. Clinical associations do not suggest a common mechanism or predictability of NHS. Recurrence is rare. Outcomes are often poor, mandating attention to prevention and rehabilitation. PMID: 28114647 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Panel 7: Otitis Media: Treatment and Complications.

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Panel 7: Otitis Media: Treatment and Complications. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 Apr;156(4_suppl):S88-S105 Authors: Schilder AG, Marom T, Bhutta MF, Casselbrant ML, Coates H, Gisselsson-Solén M, Hall AJ, Marchisio P, Ruohola A, Venekamp RP, Mandel EM Abstract Objective We aimed to summarize key articles published between 2011 and 2015 on the treatment of (recurrent) acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, tympanostomy tube otorrhea, chronic suppurative otitis media and complications of otitis media, and their implications for clinical practice. Data Sources PubMed, Ovid Medline, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Evidence (BMJ Publishing). Review Methods All types of articles related to otitis media treatment and complications between June 2011 and March 2015 were identified. A total of 1122 potential related articles were reviewed by the panel members; 118 relevant articles were ultimately included in this summary. Conclusions Recent literature and guidelines emphasize accurate diagnosis of acute otitis media and optimal management of ear pain. Watchful waiting is optional in mild to moderate acute otitis media; antibiotics do shorten symptoms and duration of middle ear effusion. The additive benefit of adenoidectomy to tympanostomy tubes in recurrent acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion is controversial and age dependent. Topical antibiotic is the treatment of choice in acute tube otorrhea. Symptomatic hearing loss due to persistent otitis media with effusion is best treated with tympanostomy tubes. Novel molecular and biomaterial treatments as adjuvants to surgical closure of eardrum perforations seem promising. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of complementary and alternative treatments. Implications for Practice Emphasis on accurate diagnosis of otitis media, in its various forms, is important to reduce overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and antibiotic resistance. Children at risk for otitis media and its complications deserve special attention. PMID: 28372534 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of a Humor Therapy Program on Stress Levels in Pediatric Inpatients.

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Effects of a Humor Therapy Program on Stress Levels in Pediatric Inpatients. Hosp Pediatr. 2017 01;7(1):46-53 Authors: Sánchez JC, Echeverri LF, Londoño MJ, Ochoa SA, Quiroz AF, Romero CR, Ruiz JO Abstract OBJECTIVE: Disease and hospitalization generate stress, which can affect the response to treatment. Humor has been used in many hospitals to decrease stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a humor therapy program on stress levels in pediatric inpatients. METHODS: In the first phase, an intervention and a control group were studied over 2 consecutive 3-month periods; the interventions were performed by a team of artists trained in humor therapy. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Weisz test, a pictorial chart that determines subjective stress perception, and the Parker test, which assesses objective stress, were applied. In the second phase, salivary cortisol levels were measured and the Weisz test was administered before and after the interventions. RESULTS: A total of 306 patients were recruited into this study: 198 in the first phase (94 in the intervention group and 104 in the nonintervention group) and 108 in the second phase. There were no differences between groups regarding age, sex, or medical diagnosis. The children in the intervention group presented lower cortisol levels, lower scores on the Parker test, and higher scores on the Weisz test than children in the nonintervention group. In the second phase, the children showed lower salivary cortisol levels and higher scores on the Weisz test after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Humor therapy has beneficial effects on stress and cortisol levels in pediatric inpatients. This supports the implementation and reinforcement of these therapies in pediatric hospitals. PMID: 27908974 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The role of acuity of illness at presentation in early mortality in black children with acute myeloid leukemia.

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The role of acuity of illness at presentation in early mortality in black children with acute myeloid leukemia. Am J Hematol. 2017 Feb;92(2):141-148 Authors: Winestone LE, Getz KD, Miller TP, Wilkes JJ, Sack L, Li Y, Huang YS, Seif AE, Bagatell R, Fisher BT, Epstein AJ, Aplenc R Abstract Black patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) experience higher mortality than White patients. We compared induction mortality, acuity of illness prior to chemotherapy, and insurance type between Black and White patients to assess whether acuity of presentation mediates the disparity. Within a retrospective cohort of 1,122 children with AML treated with two courses of standard induction chemotherapy between 2004 and 2014 in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database, the association between race (Black versus White) and inpatient mortality during induction was examined. Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-level resource utilization during the first 72 hours following admission for initial AML chemotherapy was evaluated as a potential mediator. The total effect of race on mortality during Induction I revealed a strong association (unadjusted HR 2.75, CI: 1.18, 6.41). Black patients had a significantly higher unadjusted risk of requiring ICU-level resources within the first 72 hours after initial presentation (17% versus 11%; RR 1.52, CI: 1.04, 2.24). Mediation analyses revealed the indirect effect of race through acuity accounted for 61% of the relative excess mortality during Induction I. Publicly insured patients experienced greater induction mortality than privately insured patients regardless of race. Black patients with AML have significantly greater risk of induction mortality and are at increased risk for requiring ICU-level resources soon after presentation. Higher acuity amongst Black patients accounts for a substantial portion of the relative excess mortality during Induction I. Targeting factors affecting acuity of illness at presentation may lessen racial disparities in AML induction mortality. PMID: 27862214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Postnatal depression screening in a paediatric primary care setting in Italy.

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Postnatal depression screening in a paediatric primary care setting in Italy. BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 25;17(1):42 Authors: Clavenna A, Seletti E, Cartabia M, Didoni A, Fortinguerra F, Sciascia T, Brivio L, Malnis D, Bonati M, Postnatal Depression Study Group Abstract BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression is a non-psychotic depressive disorder that begins within 4 weeks of childbirth and occurs in 13% of mothers and 10% of fathers. A prospective study with the aim to evaluate the prevalence of postnatal depression by screening parents with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in the Italian paediatric primary care setting was performed. METHODS: Mothers and fathers of infants born between 1 February and 31 July 2012, living in Italy's Milan-1 local health unit area, represented the target population of this pilot study. Parents attending well-child visits at any of the family paediatricians' offices between 60 to 90 days postpartum were asked to participate in the screening and to fill out the EPDS questionnaire. A cut-off score of 12 was used to identify parents with postnatal depression symptoms. Maternal and paternal socio-demographic variables and information concerning pregnancy and delivery were also collected. To investigate the association between screening positivity (dependent variable) and socio-demographic variables and factors related to pregnancy and delivery, a Pearson's χ2 test was used. Moreover, a stepwise multivariate logistic regression was carried out to evaluate the risk factors that most influence the probability of suffering from postnatal depression. RESULTS: In all, 126 out of 2706 (4.7%, 95% CI 3.9-5.5%) mothers and 24 out of 1420 (1.7%, 95% CI 1.0-2.4%) fathers were found to be positive for depressive symptoms. Women with mood disorders and anxiety during pregnancy were at increased risk of postpartum depression (OR 22.9, 95% CI 12.1-43.4). Only 11 mothers (8.7%) positive to EPDS screening attended a psychiatric service, and for 8 of them the diagnosis of postnatal depression was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of postnatal depression was lower than previously reported. Routine screening resulted ineffective, since few mothers found positive for depression symptoms decided to attend psychiatric services. PMID: 28122520 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Trauma and psychiatric disorders: A systematic review.

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Trauma and psychiatric disorders: A systematic review. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Apr;82(4):794-801 Authors: Clous E, Beerthuizen K, Ponsen KJ, Luitse J, Olff M, Goslings C Abstract BACKGROUND: Suicide is currently a topic of high priority for policy-makers, researchers and clinicians. The World Health Organization estimated 804,000 suicide deaths worldwide in 2012. Some studies that focused on patients with self-inflicted injury revealed that mortality in this group is higher than for patients who sustain unintentional injury. However little is known about the impact of psychiatric disorders on health care resources including length of hospital stay. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether trauma patients with a psychiatric disorder or after attempting suicide are at higher risk of a complicated course than patients without a psychiatric disorder or accidental cause. The secondary objective was to provide an overview of the current literature on the same group of trauma patients with psychiatric comorbidity in regard to mortality rate, length of stay, hospital costs and quality of life. Our primary outcome measure, complicated course, was found to be most clinically relevant. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo electronic databases. All searches were updated to March 2016. The methodological quality was assessed using the QUIPS tool. RESULTS: Our search identified 9284 articles (PubMed 3660, Embase 2590, PsycInfo 3034). Of these, 18 articles were included. Four studies investigated the association between psychiatric disorders and a complicated course after trauma, three found a significant higher risk of complications. Mortality was reviewed in 14 studies, of which seven showed significant higher risk of in-hospital mortality for trauma patients with psychiatric disorder. Eight of nine studies found significant prolonged length of stay for these patients. CONCLUSION: Patients who have a psychiatric disorder or who have attempted suicide are at higher risk of increased in-hospital mortality and prolonged length of stay after sustaining injuries. These patients also tend to be at higher risk of complications after severe trauma, however future research is needed to confirm these potentially important implications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review, level III. PMID: 28129262 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of increasing levothyroxine on pregnancy outcomes in women with uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

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Effects of increasing levothyroxine on pregnancy outcomes in women with uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017 Jan;86(1):150-155 Authors: Maraka S, Singh Ospina NM, O'Keeffe DT, Rodriguez-Gutierrez R, Espinosa De Ycaza AE, Wi CI, Juhn YJ, Coddington CC, Montori VM Abstract OBJECTIVE: Uncontrolled hypothyroidism has been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of increasing levothyroxine (LT4) dose on reducing the risk of adverse outcomes for pregnant women with TSH level greater than the recommended 1st trimester limit. DESIGN, PATIENTS, MEASUREMENTS: We reviewed the electronic medical records of pregnant women evaluated from January 2011 to December 2013, who had history of LT4-treated hypothyroidism and were found to have TSH > 2·5 mIU/l in 1st trimester. Women were divided into two groups: group A - LT4 dose was increased within two weeks from the TSH test, group B - LT4 dose remained stable. We compared the frequency of pregnancy loss (primary outcome) and other prespecified pregnancy-related adverse outcomes between groups. RESULTS: There were 85 women in group A (median TSH: 5·0, interquartile range 3·8-6·8 mIU/l) and 11 women in group B (median TSH: 4·5, interquartile range 3·2-4·9 mIU/l). The groups were not different in baseline clinical and socioeconomic characteristics. The mean interval between TSH test and LT4 dose increase was 4·5 (SD 4·6) days. Pregnancy loss was significantly lower in group A (2/85, 2·4%) vs group B (4/11, 36·4%) (P = 0·001). Other pregnancy-related adverse outcomes were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing LT4 dose for women with uncontrolled hypothyroidism in the 1st trimester of pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of pregnancy loss. Given the limitations of our study, this association awaits further confirmation from larger studies. PMID: 27486070 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Professionals’ positive perceptions of fathers are associated with more favourable attitudes towards including them in family interventions.

Professionals' positive perceptions of fathers are associated with more favourable attitudes towards including them in family interventions. Acta Paediatr. 2017 Jul 01;: Authors: deMontigny F, Gervais C, Meunier S, Dubeau D Abstract AIM: This Université du Quebec en Outaouais study examined professionals' attitudes towards fathers, their perceived self-efficacy when working with them and their perceptions of the importance of including fathers in family interventions. METHODS: Professionals in Quebec, Canada, working in childcare fields such as education, social services, health, community services and management answered a self-report questionnaire between 2013 and 2015. The 296 respondents (90% female) had a mean age of 39 (20-65), were from urban, semi-urban and rural settings and provided services to families with children up to five years of age. RESULTS: Social service professionals perceived fathers more negatively than did other professionals. Even though male professionals perceived fathers more negatively, they felt more confident working with them than did their female counterparts. Positive perceptions of fathers were associated with more favourable attitudes towards including them in family interventions, and this association was mediated by the professionals' perceptions of their own self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: The most negative attitudes were reported by social service professionals. Male professionals viewed fathers more negatively but were more confident working with them than were female colleagues. Improving professionals' perceptions of fathers could help to promote their inclusion in family interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 28667770 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The internal structure of foster-parent completed SDQ for school-aged children.

The internal structure of foster-parent completed SDQ for school-aged children. PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0176625 Authors: Lehmann S, Bøe T, Breivik K Abstract Mental health problems are common in foster-children, and tools to measure the mental health of these children are needed. One candidate instrument is the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a measure of child psychological adjustment that is increasingly being employed by Child Protection services. The aim of the current study was to examine the structural validity of the foster parent completed SDQ in a sample of 237 school aged foster children. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the foster parent completed SDQ data to a five-factor model (CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.05, 90% CI [0.04, 0.06]), thus confirming the structural validity of the five-factor model for the parent-version of the SDQ in Norwegian foster children. Measurement invariance analyses indicated that boys had lower thresholds for fighting with or bullying other children than girls. Girls were on their side more likely to be rated as less popular than boys with a similar level of peer problems. PMID: 28665965 [PubMed - in process]

Self-management interventions in pediatric epilepsy: What is the level of evidence?

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Self-management interventions in pediatric epilepsy: What is the level of evidence? Epilepsia. 2017 May;58(5):743-754 Authors: Wagner JL, Modi AC, Johnson EK, Shegog R, Escoffery C, Bamps Y, Austin JK, Schultz RJ, MapelLentz S, Smith G Abstract OBJECTIVE: To respond to recommendations put forth by the Institute of Medicine to improve self-management resources for youth with epilepsy by conducting a systematic review of the self-management literature in pediatric epilepsy. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: youth birth to 18 years with a seizure disorder or an epilepsy diagnosis and/or their caregivers, published 1985-2014 in English, and conducted in countries with a very high human development index. Abstract and keywords had to explicitly refer to "self-care" (pre-1996) and/or self-management (post-1996). The review was conducted in seven phases: (1) identification of bibliographical search criteria and databases; (2) abstract assessment; (3) full article review; (4) organization of final citations into instrument development, intervention, factors associated with self-management categories; (5) American Academy of Neurology level of evidence (LOE) assessment for intervention studies; (6) CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) evaluation of LOE level III articles utilizing a control group; and (7) categorization of intervention outcomes across four self-management domains. RESULTS: Of the 87 articles that met eligibility criteria, 24 were interventions and received LOE scores of level III or IV. Most studies (n = 20, 80%) were scored at level III; however, only eight had a control group and adhered to CONSORT guidelines. They largely neglected information on intervention components (e.g., implementation, treatment fidelity), randomization, participant flow, missing data, and effect size or confidence intervals. The 24 intervention studies reported significant impact in four domains: individual (n = 13), family (n = 6), health care system (n = 3), and community (n = 2). SIGNIFICANCE: There are no level I or II studies. No study met full CONSORT guidelines. Outcomes were well described; however, the nature of self-management interventions (e.g., multiple foci, skills targeted) and the observed heterogeneity in outcomes complicates comparisons across studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that include large sample sizes, impact of the intervention, treatment fidelity, and power analyses are necessary to further this evidence base. PMID: 28233908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Impact of Physical Disability on Pregnancy and Childbirth.

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The Impact of Physical Disability on Pregnancy and Childbirth. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2017 Jun 29;: Authors: Long-Bellil L, Mitra M, Iezzoni LI, Smeltzer SC, Smith L Abstract BACKGROUND: Women with physical disabilities increasingly aspire to become pregnant and bear children. Limited information about the potential interaction of their disabling conditions with pregnancy and childbirth exists to guide these women and their clinicians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The interview guide was created with questions on topics such as pregnancy complications and secondary conditions, the impact of prior surgeries, experiences with pain relief during labor, and the impact on women's independence and participation in life activities. Interviews were conducted by telephone with 25 women with physical disabilities. They were subsequently transcribed verbatim and analyzed by using Atlas TI. RESULTS: Women generally reported a relatively modest impact of disabling conditions on their pregnancies. Most women were satisfied with the mode of delivery, but they experienced challenges during the labor and delivery process. The women found that careful advanced planning was helpful in managing the impact of their disabling conditions. The involvement of clinicians with disability-related expertise was, in some cases, another factor that contributed to a positive outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of advanced planning and the utility of involving clinicians with disability-related expertise suggest that the use of integrated, interdisciplinary team approaches could promote quality care by facilitating improved planning and management. Additional clinical research is needed to provide women and their clinicians with more information on potential complications and options for labor and delivery. PMID: 28661774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Risk Factors, Protective Factors, and Current Recommendations to Reduce Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Review.

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Risk Factors, Protective Factors, and Current Recommendations to Reduce Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Review. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Feb 01;171(2):175-180 Authors: Carlin RF, Moon RY Abstract Importance: Sudden infant death syndrome remains the leading cause of death in infants aged 1 month to 1 year in the United States. Observations: While its exact cause is unknown, sudden infant death syndrome is believed to be multifactorial, ie, occurs in infants with underlying biological vulnerability who experience an exogenous stressor, such as prone/side sleeping or soft bedding, during a critical developmental period. Much genetic and physiologic evidence points to impaired arousal responses to hypercarbia and hypoxia, which ultimately leads to asphyxia. Known risk factors for infants include prone and side sleeping, soft bedding, bed sharing, inappropriate sleep surfaces (including sofas), exposure to tobacco smoke, and prematurity; protective factors include breastfeeding, pacifier use, room sharing, and immunizations. Conclusions and Relevance: Despite our improved understanding of the physiologic mechanisms that cause sudden infant death, the mainstay of risk reduction continues to be a safe sleep environment, as most infants who die suddenly and unexpectedly do so in unsafe sleep environments. PMID: 27918760 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Typological Analysis of Victimization Profiles of Young Children.

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Typological Analysis of Victimization Profiles of Young Children. Violence Vict. 2017 Apr 01;32(2):230-250 Authors: Robert-Mazaye C, Clément MÈ, Cyr K, Chamberland C Abstract Although the scope of violence against children has been well documented, the reality of this phenomenon remains to be examined. Using data collected during a populationbased survey on the polyvictimization of children between 2 and 11 years old, this study explores the profiles of 972 children who are victims of many forms of violence (in family, school, and/or community). Cluster analyses identified 4 groups (minimal victimization, generalized victimization, threatening environment, aggressive environment), which differ according to the forms and extent of the violence experienced. The role of age, gender, and adverse life events in forming groups is also examined, as are the links with mental health disorders. Fostering the examination of the phenomenon of violence against children in all its diversity, this taxonomy presents advantages for researchers and professionals, which are discussed. PMID: 28130903 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Review of serious events in cases of (suspected) child abuse and/or neglect: A RoSE by any other name?

Review of serious events in cases of (suspected) child abuse and/or neglect: A RoSE by any other name? Child Abuse Negl. 2017 Jun 26;70:283-291 Authors: Raman S, Maiese M, Vasquez V, Gordon P, Jones JM Abstract Child abuse and neglect (CAN) cases presenting to health-services may be complex; when things go seriously wrong such as a child death or near miss, cases are reviewed and health-services and professionals subject to intense scrutiny. While there are a variety of mechanisms to review critical incidents in health-services no formal process for the review of cases where child protection is the primary concern exists in Australia. We aimed to develop a systematic process to review serious events in cases of suspected CAN across two health districts in Sydney, so that shared learnings could fuel system change. Drawing upon mapping, case review, literature findings and using quality improvement methodology, we developed a model named Review of Serious Events (RoSE), in suspected cases of CAN. The RoSE model has the key features of: being child focused; seeking to examine care over a period of time; using child protection staff as lead reviewers; involving health professionals/services in the review who have been involved with the child; and actioning systems change at local levels. The RoSE model was trialled through 2014-2015. Eight cases were reviewed using RoSE; cases were similar to those reviewed prior to having a model. Participant feedback from RoSE group processes was overwhelmingly positive; outputs were transparent and accessible to key stakeholders, there was mixed progress with implementation. The RoSE model is a serious case review process that is strongly child-focused, is both investigative and reflective, led by child protection experts; and can be adapted to other settings and systems. PMID: 28662440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Preclinical evaluation of drugs to block inflammation-driven preterm birth.

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Preclinical evaluation of drugs to block inflammation-driven preterm birth. Innate Immun. 2017 Jan;23(1):20-33 Authors: Ireland DJ, Nathan EA, Li S, Charles AK, Stinson LF, Kemp MW, Newnham JP, Keelan JA Abstract Intrauterine inflammation, the major cause of early preterm birth, can have microbial and sterile aetiologies. We assessed in a Transwell model the anti-inflammatory efficacies of five drugs on human extraplacental membranes delivered after preterm spontaneous labour (30-34 wk). Drugs [TPCA1 (IKKβ inhibitor), 5 z-7-oxozeaenol (OxZ, TAK1 inhibitor), inhibitor of NF-κB essential modulator binding domain (iNBD), SB239063 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and N-acetyl cysteine (free radical scavenger free radicals)] were added after 12 h equilibration to the amniotic compartment. Concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-1β and PGE2 in the media, and IL6, TNFA and PTGS2 mRNA expression levels in membranes, were determined after 12 h. Data were analysed using mixed models analyses. Thirteen of the 28 membranes had histological chorioamnionitis (HCA(+)); five were positive for bacterial culture and six for fetal inflammatory reaction. Baseline PGE2 and cytokine production was similar between HCA(-) and HCA(+) membranes. Anti-inflammatory effects were also similar between HCA(-) and HCA(+) membranes. TPCA1 and OxZ were the most effective drugs; each inhibited amniotic secretion of 4/5 pro-inflammatory mediators and mRNA levels of 2/3, regardless of stimulus. We conclude that treatment with TPCA1 or OxZ, in combination with antibiotics, may minimise the adverse effects of intrauterine inflammation in pregnancy. PMID: 27821647 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Trends in the Diagnosis of Vitamin D Deficiency.

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Trends in the Diagnosis of Vitamin D Deficiency. Pediatrics. 2017 Mar;139(3): Authors: Basatemur E, Horsfall L, Marston L, Rait G, Sutcliffe A Abstract BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has attracted considerable interest in recent years, and health care providers have reported large increases in vitamin D test requests. However, rates of diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency in clinical practice have not been investigated. We examined trends in diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency in children in England over time, and by sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: Cohort study using primary care records of 711 788 children aged 0 to 17 years, from the Health Improvement Network database. Incidence rates for diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency were calculated per year between 2000 and 2014. Rate ratios exploring differences by age, sex, ethnicity, and social deprivation were estimated using multivariable Poisson regression. RESULTS: The crude rate of vitamin D deficiency diagnosis increased from 3.14 per 100 000 person-years in 2000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-7.54) to 261 per 100 000 person-years in 2014 (95% CI, 241-281). After accounting for changes in demographic characteristics, a 15-fold (95% CI, 10-21) increase in diagnosis was seen between 2008 and 2014. Older age (≥10 years), nonwhite ethnicity, and social deprivation were independently associated with higher rates of diagnosis. In children aged <5 years, diagnosis rates were higher in boys than girls, whereas in children aged ≥10 they were higher in girls. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a marked increase in diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency in children over the past decade. Future research should explore the drivers for this change in diagnostic behavior and the reasons prompting investigation of vitamin D status in clinical practice. PMID: 28159871 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Utilization of Mental Health Services After Mild Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

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Utilization of Mental Health Services After Mild Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Pediatrics. 2017 Mar;139(3): Authors: Jimenez N, Quistberg A, Vavilala MS, Jaffe KM, Rivara FP Abstract BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury injuries (mTBIs), including concussions, represent >2 million US pediatric emergency department visits annually. Post-mTBI mental health symptoms are prominent and often attributed to the mTBI. This study examined whether individuals seeking post-mTBI mental health care had previous mental health diagnoses or a new onset of such disorders, and determined if mental health care utilization differed by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, using the Medicaid Marketscan claims national dataset (2007-2012). Utilization of mental health services 1 year before and 1 year after mTBI was compared between children with and without mental health diagnoses before injury. Primary outcome was receipt of post-mTBI outpatient mental health care. RESULTS: A total of 31 272 children 20 years or younger were included, 8577 (27%) with mental health diagnoses before their mTBI and 22 695 without one. After injury, children without previous mental health disorders increased mental health services utilization; however, most (86%) postinjury mental health care was received by children with previous mental health disorders. Having a mental health diagnosis pre-mTBI was the most important risk factor for receiving post-mTBI mental health care (odds ratio 7.93, 95% confidence interval 7.40-8.50). Hispanic children were less likely to receive post-mTBI mental health care. CONCLUSIONS: mTBI was associated with increased utilization of mental health services but most of these services were received by children with previous mental health disorders. Our documentation of racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care utilization reemphasize the importance of providing individualized, culturally, and linguistically competent care to improve outcomes after mTBI for all children. PMID: 28159872 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Perspectives of Low Socioeconomic Status Mothers of Premature Infants.

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Perspectives of Low Socioeconomic Status Mothers of Premature Infants. Pediatrics. 2017 Mar;139(3): Authors: Enlow E, Faherty LJ, Wallace-Keeshen S, Martin AE, Shea JA, Lorch SA Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transitioning premature infants from the NICU to home is a high-risk period with potential for compromised care. Parental stress is high, and families of low socioeconomic status may face additional challenges. Home visiting programs have been used to help this transition, with mixed success. We sought to understand the experiences of at-risk families during this transition to inform interventions. METHODS: Mothers of infants born at <35 weeks' gestation, meeting low socioeconomic status criteria, were interviewed by telephone 30 days after discharge to assess caregiver experiences of discharge and perceptions of home visitors (HVs). We generated salient themes by using grounded theory and the constant comparative method. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was achieved. RESULTS: Twenty-seven mothers completed interviews. Eighty-five percent were black, and 81% had Medicaid insurance. Concern about infants' health and fragility was the primary theme identified, with mothers reporting substantial stress going from a highly monitored NICU to an unmonitored home. Issues with trust and informational consistency were mentioned frequently and could threaten mothers' willingness to engage with providers. Strong family networks and determination compensated for limited economic resources, although many felt isolated. Mothers appreciated HVs' ability to address infant health but preferred nurses over lay health workers. CONCLUSIONS: Low-income mothers experience significant anxiety about the transition from the NICU to home. Families value HVs who are trustworthy and have relevant medical knowledge about prematurity. Interventions to improve transition would benefit by incorporating parental input and facilitating trust and consistency in communication. PMID: 28223372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Neonatal Morbidity and 1-Year Survival of Extremely Preterm Infants.

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Neonatal Morbidity and 1-Year Survival of Extremely Preterm Infants. Pediatrics. 2017 Mar;139(3): Authors: Stensvold HJ, Klingenberg C, Stoen R, Moster D, Braekke K, Guthe HJ, Astrup H, Rettedal S, Gronn M, Ronnestad AE, Norwegian Neonatal Network Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine 1-year survival and major neonatal morbidities (intracranial hemorrhage grade >2, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity grade >2, necrotizing enterocolitis, severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia) among extremely preterm infants in Norway in 2013-2014, and to compare the results to the first Norwegian Extreme Prematurity Study 1999-2000 and similar contemporary European population-based studies. METHODS: Population-based study of all infants born at 22 through 26 weeks' gestation in Norway in 2013-2014. Prospectively collected data were obtained by linking data in the Norwegian Neonatal Network to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. RESULTS: Of 420 infants (incidence 3.5 per 1000 births), 145 were stillborn (34.5%), 275 were live-born (82.3% of the 334 fetuses alive at admission for obstetrical care), and 251 (91.3% of live-born infants) were admitted to a neonatal unit. The survival among live-born infants was 18% at 22 weeks, 29% at 23 weeks, 56% at 24 weeks, 84% at 25 weeks and 90% at 26 weeks (for each week increment in gestational age: odds ratio 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-4.4). Among infants surviving to 1 year of age, major neonatal morbidity was diagnosed in 55%. Decreasing gestational age was moderately associated with rates of major morbidity (odds ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.2). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the previous 1999-2000 cohort, the rate of stillbirth before admission to an obstetrical unit increased, whereas the survival rate among live born infants was similar in our 2013-2014 cohort. Neonatal morbidity rates remain high among extremely preterm infants. PMID: 28228499 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pediatric Resident Burnout and Attitudes Toward Patients.

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Pediatric Resident Burnout and Attitudes Toward Patients. Pediatrics. 2017 Mar;139(3): Authors: Baer TE, Feraco AM, Tuysuzoglu Sagalowsky S, Williams D, Litman HJ, Vinci RJ Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Burnout occurs in up to 75% of resident physicians. Our study objectives were to: (1) determine the prevalence of burnout, and (2) examine the association between burnout and self-reported patient care attitudes and behaviors among pediatric residents. METHODS: A total of 258 residents (53% response rate) from 11 pediatric residency programs completed a cross-sectional Web-based survey. Burnout was measured with 2 items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Patient care attitudes and behaviors were measured with 7 questions from a standardized qualitative survey. χ(2) and logistic regression tested the association between burnout and self-reported patient care attitudes and behavior. RESULTS: A total of 39% of respondents (mean age, 29.4 years ± 2.3 SD; 79% female; 83% white; 35% postgraduate year [PGY] -1, 34% PGY-2, and 31% PGY-3), endorsed burnout. Residents with burnout had significantly greater odds (P < .01) of reporting suboptimal patient care attitudes and behaviors, including: discharging patients to make the service more manageable (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-11.1), not fully discussing treatment options or answering questions (aOR 3.5; 95% CI, 1.7-7.1), making treatment or medication errors (aOR 7.1; 95% CI, 2.0-25.8), ignoring the social or personal impact of an illness (aOR 9.6; 95% CI, 3.2-28.9), and feeling guilty about how a patient was treated (aOR 6.0; 95% CI, 1.6-22.1). CONCLUSIONS: Burnout is highly prevalent among pediatric residents and is associated with self-reported negative patient care attitudes and behaviors. Residency programs should develop interventions addressing burnout and its potential negative impact on patient care. PMID: 28232639 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]