Mitigating Nutrition and Health Deficiencies in Older Adults: A Role for Food Innovation?

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Mitigating Nutrition and Health Deficiencies in Older Adults: A Role for Food Innovation? J Food Sci. 2017 Apr;82(4):848-855 Authors: Baugreet S, Hamill RM, Kerry JP, McCarthy SN Abstract The aim of this review is to describe the factors contributing to diminished food intake, resulting in nutritional deficiencies and associated health conditions in older adults and proposes food innovation strategies to mitigate these. Research has provided convincing evidence of a link between healthy eating patterns and healthy aging. There is a need to target new food product development (NPD) with functional health benefits specifically designed to address the particular food-related needs of older consumers. When developing foods for older adults, consideration should be given to the increased requirements for specific macro- and micronutrients, especially protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B. Changes in chemosensory acuity, chewing difficulties, and reduced or poor swallowing ability should also be considered. To compensate for the diminished appetite and reduced intake, foods should be energy dense, nutritionally adequate, and, most importantly, palatable, when targeting this cohort. This paper describes the potential of new food product development to facilitate dietary modification and address health deficiencies in older adults. PMID: 28267864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Consensus Bundle on Prevention of Surgical Site Infections After Major Gynecologic Surgery.

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Consensus Bundle on Prevention of Surgical Site Infections After Major Gynecologic Surgery. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jan;129(1):50-61 Authors: Pellegrini JE, Toledo P, Soper DE, Bradford WC, Cruz DA, Levy BS, Lemieux LA Abstract Surgical site infections are the most common complication of surgery in the United States. Of surgeries in women of reproductive age, hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed, second only to cesarean birth. Therefore, prevention of surgical site infections in women undergoing gynecologic surgery is an ideal topic for a patient safety bundle. The primary purpose of this safety bundle is to provide recommendations that can be implemented into any surgical environment in an effort to reduce the incidence of surgical site infection. This bundle was developed by a multidisciplinary team convened by the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care. The bundle is organized into four domains: Readiness, Recognition and Prevention, Response, and Reporting and Systems Learning. In addition to recommendations for practice, each of the domains stresses communication and teamwork between all members of the surgical team. Although the bundle components are designed to be adaptable to work in a variety of clinical settings, standardization within institutions is encouraged. PMID: 27926634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Recurrence risk of venous thromboembolism and hormone use in women from England: a cohort study using clinical practice research datalink.

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Recurrence risk of venous thromboembolism and hormone use in women from England: a cohort study using clinical practice research datalink. Br J Haematol. 2017 Apr;177(1):127-135 Authors: Kiconco S, Abdul Sultan A, Grainge MJ Abstract It is vital to identify people with low recurrence risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) so as to protect them from dangers of prolonged anticoagulation therapy. Among women who develop VTE following hormone use, the evidence as to whether their risk of recurrence is low if they cease this therapy is conflicting. We investigated whether women whose initial VTE event was hormone-related have a lower risk of VTE recurrence than women whose initial event had no obvious cause (unprovoked). A cohort study utilising the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics data from England was conducted. We selected 4170 women aged between 15 and 64 years who were diagnosed with a first VTE event between 1997 and 2011. Cox regression models were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR). Hormone users had 29% lower recurrence risk than non-users (adjusted HR = 0·71; 95% confidence interval 0·58-0·88), a relationship which existed both in women aged 15-44 years (predominantly oral contraceptive users) and those aged 45-64 years (predominantly hormone replacement therapy users). In conclusion, having a hormone-associated VTE is associated with a lower recurrence risk than one that is unprovoked after discontinuation of the hormone-containing preparation. Prolonged anticoagulation may therefore be unjustified in such women. PMID: 28106922 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fragile X premutation in women: recognizing the health challenges beyond primary ovarian insufficiency.

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Fragile X premutation in women: recognizing the health challenges beyond primary ovarian insufficiency. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2017 Mar;34(3):315-323 Authors: Hoyos LR, Thakur M Abstract Fragile X premutation carriers have 55-200 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Women with this premutation face many physical and emotional challenges in their life. Approximately 20% of these women will develop fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). In addition, they suffer from increased rates of menstrual dysfunction, diminished ovarian reserve, reduction in age of menopause, infertility, dizygotic twinning, and risk of having an offspring with a premutation or full mutation. Consequent chronic hypoestrogenism may result in impaired bone health and increased cardiovascular risk. Neuropsychiatric issues include risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, neuropathy, musculoskeletal problems, increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances independent of the stress of raising an offspring with fragile X syndrome and higher risk of postpartum depression. Some studies have reported a higher prevalence of thyroid abnormalities and hypertension in these women. Reproductive health providers play an important role in the health supervision of women with fragile X premutation. Awareness of these risks and correlation of the various manifestations could help in early diagnosis and coordination of care and services for these women and their families. This paper reviews current evidence regarding the possible conditions that may present in women with premutation-sized repeats beyond FXPOI. PMID: 27995424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gout – a guide for the general and acute physicians.

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Gout - a guide for the general and acute physicians. Clin Med (Lond). 2017 Feb;17(1):54-59 Authors: Abhishek A, Roddy E, Doherty M Abstract Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis and affects 2.5% of the general population in the UK. It is also the only arthritis that has the potential to be cured with safe, inexpensive and well tolerated urate-lowering treatments, which reduce serum uric acid by either inhibiting xanthine oxidase - eg allopurinol, febuxostat - or by increasing the renal excretion of uric acid. Of these, xanthine oxidase inhibitors are used first line and are effective in 'curing' gout in the vast majority of patients. Gout can be diagnosed on clinical grounds in those with typical podagra. However, in those with involvement of other joints, joint aspiration is recommended to demonstrate monosodium urate crystals and exclude other causes of acute arthritis, such as septic arthritis. However, a clinical diagnosis of gout can be made if joint aspiration is not feasible. This review summarises the current understanding of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, investigations and treatment of gout. PMID: 28148582 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Barriers to self-management of chronic pain in primary care: a qualitative focus group study.

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Barriers to self-management of chronic pain in primary care: a qualitative focus group study. Br J Gen Pract. 2017 Mar;67(656):e209-e217 Authors: Gordon K, Rice H, Allcock N, Bell P, Dunbar M, Gilbert S, Wallace H Abstract BACKGROUND: Supported self-management is a recommended intervention for chronic pain. Effective self-management should enable an individual to reduce the impact of pain on their everyday life. Clinical guidelines suggest primary care services have a role to play in supporting self-management of chronic pain. AIM: To examine the opinions of primary care healthcare professionals (HCPs) and people with chronic pain and their carers, in order to identify possible barriers to the facilitation and adoption of self-management. DESIGN AND SETTING: A qualitative study using focus groups in locations throughout Scotland. METHOD: Eighteen focus groups were held with patients and HCPs. Fifty-four patients, nine carers, and 38 HCPs attended the groups. RESULTS: Four categories of barriers were found. 1) Patient-HCP consultation: some patients felt a discussion about self-management came too late or not at all. Communication and building positive relations were sometimes challenging. 2) Patient experience: the emotional impact of pain was difficult and patients often felt unsupported by HCPs. 3) Limited treatment options: some participants felt there was a tendency for overmedicalisation. 4) Organisational constraints: short appointment times, long waiting lists, and a compartmentalised NHS created challenges. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates some of the barriers faced by HCPs and patients in the facilitation and adoption of self-management of chronic pain. If self-management is to be an important approach to chronic pain, primary care services need to be designed to address the barriers identified. PMID: 27993899 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cancer predisposition syndromes: lessons for truly precision medicine.

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Cancer predisposition syndromes: lessons for truly precision medicine. J Pathol. 2017 Jan;241(2):226-235 Authors: Glaire MA, Brown M, Church DN, Tomlinson I Abstract Cancer predisposition syndromes are typically uncommon, monogenic, high-penetrance disorders. Despite their rarity, they have proven to be highly clinically relevant in directing cancer prevention strategies. As such, they share notable similarities with an expanding class of low-frequency somatic mutations that are associated with a striking prognostic or predictive effect in the tumours in which they occur. In this review, we highlight these commonalities, with particular reference to mutations in the proofreading domain of replicative DNA polymerases. These molecular phenotypes may occur as either germline or somatic events, and in the latter case, have been shown to confer a favourable prognosis and potential increased benefit from immune checkpoint inhibition. We note that incorporation of these variants into clinical management algorithms will help refine patient management, and that this will be further improved by the inclusion of other germline variants, such as those that determine the likelihood of benefit or toxicity from anti-neoplastic therapy. Finally, we propose that such integrated patient and tumour profiling will be essential if we are to deliver truly precision medicine for cancer patients, but in a similar way to rare germline mutations, we must ensure that we identify and utilize rare somatic mutations with strong predictive and prognostic effects. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID: 27859368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Potentially Modifiable Factors Associated With Physical Activity in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis.

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Potentially Modifiable Factors Associated With Physical Activity in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis. Res Nurs Health. 2017 Apr;40(2):143-152 Authors: Reider N, Salter AR, Cutter GR, Tyry T, Marrie RA Abstract Physical activity levels among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are worryingly low. We aimed to identify the factors associated with physical activity for people with MS, with an emphasis on factors that have not been studied previously (bladder and hand dysfunction) and are potentially modifiable. This study was a secondary analysis of data collected in the spring of 2012 during the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. NARCOMS participants were surveyed regarding smoking using questions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey; disability using the Patient Determined Disease Steps; fatigue, cognition, spasticity, sensory, bladder, vision and hand function using self-reported Performance Scales; health literacy using the Medical Term Recognition Test; and physical activity using questions from the Health Information National Trends Survey. We used a forward binary logistic regression to develop a predictive model in which physical activity was the outcome variable. Of 8,755 respondents, 1,707 (19.5%) were classified as active and 7,068 (80.5%) as inactive. In logistic regression, being a current smoker, moderate or severe level of disability, depression, fatigue, hand, or bladder dysfunction and minimal to mild spasticity were associated with lower odds of meeting physical activity guidelines. MS type was not linked to activity level. Several modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors influenced physical activity in MS. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether modification of these factors can increase physical activity participation in persons with MS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 28165143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

What is inappropriate hospital use for elderly people near the end of life? A systematic review.

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What is inappropriate hospital use for elderly people near the end of life? A systematic review. Eur J Intern Med. 2017 May 11;: Authors: Cardona-Morrell M, Kim JCH, Brabrand M, Gallego-Luxan B, Hillman K Abstract BACKGROUND: Older people with advance chronic illness use hospital services repeatedly near the end of life. Some of these hospitalizations are considered inappropriate. AIM: To investigate extent and causes of inappropriate hospital admission among older patients near the end of life. METHODS: English language publications in Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane library, and the grey literature (January 1995-December 2016) covering community and nursing home residents aged ≥60years admitted to hospital. OUTCOMES: measurements of inappropriateness. A 17-item quality score was estimated independently by two authors. RESULTS: The definition of 'Inappropriate admissions' near the end of life incorporated system factors, social and family factors. The prevalence of inappropriate admissions ranged widely depending largely on non-clinical reasons: poor availability of alternative sites of care or failure of preventive actions by other healthcare providers (1.7-67.0%); family requests (up to 10.5%); or too late an admission to be of benefit (1.7-35.0%). The widespread use of subjective parameters not routinely collected in practice, and the inclusion of non-clinical factors precluded the true estimation of clinical inappropriateness. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical inappropriateness and system factors that preclude alternative community care must be measured separately. They are two very different justifications for hospital admissions, requiring different solutions. Society has a duty to ensure availability of community alternatives for the management of ambulatory-sensitive conditions and facilitate skilling of staff to manage the terminally ill in non-acute settings. Only then would the evaluation of local variations in clinically inappropriate admissions and inappropriate length of stay be possible to undertake. PMID: 28502866 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Should We Prescribe Antibiotics to This Patient With Persistent Upper Respiratory Symptoms?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

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Should We Prescribe Antibiotics to This Patient With Persistent Upper Respiratory Symptoms?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Feb 07;166(3):201-208 Authors: Libman H, Brockmeyer DM, Gold HS Abstract The American College of Physicians (ACP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently published advice for high-value care on the appropriate use of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections. They conducted a narrative literature review of evidence for antibiotic use in this setting that included recent clinical guidelines from professional societies supplemented by randomized, controlled trials; meta-analyses; and systematic reviews. They concluded that clinicians should reserve antibiotic treatment for acute rhinosinusitis in patients with persistent symptoms for more than 10 days, high fever and purulent nasal discharge or facial pain lasting for at least 3 consecutive days, or worsening symptoms after a typical viral illness that lasted 5 days and had initially improved ("double-sickening"). In this Grand Rounds, 2 prominent clinicians debate whether to initiate antibiotic treatment in a 62-year-old man with a history of recurrent sinusitis who presents with persistent upper respiratory symptoms. They review the data on which the ACP/CDC recommendations are based and discuss the potential benefits and risks, as well as the challenges and controversies, of prescribing antibiotic therapy in this setting. PMID: 28166559 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The efficacy of psychoeducation on recurrent depression: a randomized trial with a 2-year follow-up.

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The efficacy of psychoeducation on recurrent depression: a randomized trial with a 2-year follow-up. Nord J Psychiatry. 2017 Apr;71(3):223-229 Authors: Aagaard J, Foldager L, Makki A, Hansen V, Müller-Nielsen K Abstract BACKGROUND: The efficacy of psychoeducation is well documented in the treatment of relapse prevention of schizophrenia, and recently also in bipolar disorder; however, for recurrent depression only few controlled studies focusing on the efficacy of psychoeducation have been conducted. AIMS: This randomized study tests the efficacy of treatment-as-usual supplemented with a psychoeducative programme for patients with recurrent depression, treated at Community Mental Health Centres (CMHC) in Denmark. The primary outcome measurements concern was decline in consumption of psychiatric inpatient services and decline in Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). METHODS: Eighty patients were randomized, either to the psychoeducative programme (consisting of eight sessions, each of 2 hours duration) and 2-year outpatient follow-up (42 cases), or only to 2-year outpatient follow-up (38 controls). The patients were monitored during 2 years after randomization. Data were collected from interviews including BDI, drug treatment and social measurements, and register data concerning use of psychiatric services. RESULTS: At 2-year follow-up, a significant reduction in the consumption of psychiatric inpatient services and in BDI was found; however, it was uniform for case and control patients. Drop-out/non-compliance was significantly more frequent among patients randomized to the control group. Furthermore, during follow-up the case group got a significant stronger attachment to the Labour market than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The primary hypothesis could not be confirmed. Secondary outcome measurements concerning drop-out/non-compliance and attachment to the Labour market were significantly in favour of cases. PMID: 27997274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: results of a cohort study and meta-analysis.

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Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: results of a cohort study and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2017 May 15;140(10):2220-2231 Authors: van den Brandt PA, Schulpen M Abstract The Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been associated with reduced mortality and risk of cardiovascular diseases, but there is only limited evidence on cancer. We investigated the relationship between adherence to MD and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (and estrogen/progesterone receptor subtypes, ER/PR). In the Netherlands Cohort Study, 62,573 women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits in 1986. Follow-up for cancer incidence until 2007 (20.3 years) consisted of record linkages with the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the Dutch Pathology Registry PALGA. Adherence to MD was estimated through the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score excluding alcohol. Multivariate case-cohort analyses were based on 2,321 incident breast cancer cases and 1,665 subcohort members with complete data on diet and potential confounders. We also conducted meta-analyses of our results with those of other published cohort studies. We found a statistically significant inverse association between MD adherence and risk of ER negative (ER-) breast cancer, with a hazard ratio of 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.39-0.93) for high versus low MD adherence (ptrend  = 0.032). MD adherence showed only nonsignificant weak inverse associations with ER positive (ER+) or total breast cancer risk. In meta-analyses, summary HRs for high versus low MD adherence were 0.94 for total postmenopausal breast cancer, 0.98 for ER+, 0.73 for ER- and 0.77 for ER - PR- breast cancer. Our findings support an inverse association between MD adherence and, particularly, receptor negative breast cancer. This may have important implications for prevention because of the poorer prognosis of these breast cancer subtypes. PMID: 28260236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mindfulness-based interventions in epilepsy: a systematic review.

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Mindfulness-based interventions in epilepsy: a systematic review. BMC Neurol. 2017 Mar 20;17(1):52 Authors: Wood K, Lawrence M, Jani B, Simpson R, Mercer SW Abstract BACKGROUND: Mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) are increasingly used to help patients cope with physical and mental long-term conditions (LTCs). Epilepsy is associated with a range of mental and physical comorbidities that have a detrimental effect on quality of life (QOL), but it is not clear whether MBIs can help. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the effectiveness of MBIs in people with epilepsy. METHODS: Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, Allied and Complimentary Medicine Database, and PsychInfo were searched in March 2016. These databases were searched using a combination of subject headings where available and keywords in the title and abstracts. We also searched the reference lists of related reviews. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a total of 231 participants were included. The interventions were tested in the USA (n = 171) and China (Hong Kong) (n = 60). Significant improvements were reported in depression symptoms, quality of life, anxiety, and depression knowledge and skills. Two of the included studies were assessed as being at unclear/high risk of bias - with randomisation and allocation procedures, as well as adverse events and reasons for drop-outs poorly reported. There was no reporting on intervention costs/benefits or how they affected health service utilisation. CONCLUSION: This systematic review found limited evidence for the effectiveness of MBIs in epilepsy, however preliminary evidence suggests it may lead to some improvement in anxiety, depression and quality of life. Further trials with larger sample sizes, active control groups and longer follow-ups are needed before the evidence for MBIs in epilepsy can be conclusively determined. PMID: 28320349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Interventions for raising breast cancer awareness in women.

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Interventions for raising breast cancer awareness in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 02 10;2:CD011396 Authors: O'Mahony M, Comber H, Fitzgerald T, Corrigan MA, Fitzgerald E, Grunfeld EA, Flynn MG, Hegarty J Abstract BACKGROUND: Breast cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women globally. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer are key to better outcomes. Since many women will discover a breast cancer symptom themselves, it is important that they are breast cancer aware i.e. have the knowledge, skills and confidence to detect breast changes and present promptly to a healthcare professional. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions for raising breast cancer awareness in women. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's Specialised Register (searched 25 January 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 12) in the Cochrane Library (searched 27 January 2016), MEDLINE OvidSP (2008 to 27 January 2016), Embase (Embase.com, 2008 to 27 January 2016), the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal and ClinicalTrials.gov (searched 27 Feburary 2016). We also searched the reference lists of identified articles and reviews and the grey literature for conference proceedings and published abstracts. No language restriction was applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on interventions for raising women's breast cancer awareness i.e. knowledge of potential breast cancer symptoms/changes and the confidence to look at and feel their breasts, using any means of delivery, i.e. one-to-one/group/mass media campaign(s). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors selected studies, independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We reported the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) and standard deviation (SD) for continuous outcomes. Since it was not possible to combine data from included studies due to their heterogeneity, we present a narrative synthesis. We assessed the quality of evidence using GRADE methods. MAIN RESULTS: We included two RCTs involving 997 women: one RCT (867 women) randomised women to receive either a written booklet and usual care (intervention group 1), a written booklet and usual care plus a verbal interaction with a radiographer or research psychologist (intervention group 2) or usual care (control group); and the second RCT (130 women) randomised women to either an educational programme (three sessions of 60 to 90 minutes) or no intervention (control group). Knowledge of breast cancer symptomsIn the first study, knowledge of non-lump symptoms increased in intervention group 1 compared to the control group at two years postintervention, but not significantly (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.6; P = 0.66; 449 women; moderate-quality evidence). Similarly, at two years postintervention, knowledge of symptoms increased in the intervention group 2 compared to the control group but not significantly (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.1; P = 0.11; 434 women; moderate-quality evidence). In the second study, women's awareness of breast cancer symptoms had increased one month post intervention in the educational group (MD 3.45, SD 5.11; 65 women; low-quality evidence) compared to the control group (MD -0.68, SD 5.93; 65 women; P < 0.001), where there was a decrease in awareness. Knowledge of age-related riskIn the first study, women's knowledge of age-related risk of breast cancer increased, but not significantly, in intervention group 1 compared to control at two years postintervention (OR 1.8; 95% CI 0.9 to 3.5; P < 0.08; 447 women; moderate-quality evidence). Women's knowledge of risk increased significantly in intervention group 2 compared to control at two years postintervention (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.6 to 9.0; P < 0.001; 431 women; moderate-quality evidence). In the second study, women's perceived susceptibility (how at risk they considered themselves) to breast cancer had increased significantly one month post intervention in the educational group (MD 1.31, SD 3.57; 65 women; low-quality evidence) compared to the control group (MD -0.55, SD 3.31; 65 women; P = 0.005), where a decrease in perceived susceptibility was noted. Frequency of Breast CheckingIn the first study, no significant change was noted for intervention group 1 compared to control at two years postintervention (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.6; P = 0.54; 457 women; moderate-quality evidence). Monthly breast checking increased, but not significantly, in intervention group 2 compared to control at two years postintervention (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.9; P = 0.14; 445 women; moderate-quality evidence). In the second study, women's breast cancer preventive behaviours increased significantly one month post intervention in the educational group (MD 1.21, SD 2.54; 65 women; low-quality evidence) compared to the control group (MD 0.15, SD 2.94; 65 women; P < 0.045). Breast Cancer AwarenessWomen's overall breast cancer awareness did not change in intervention group 1 compared to control at two years postintervention (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.6 to 5.30; P = 0.32; 435 women; moderate-quality evidence) while overall awareness increased in the intervention group 2 compared to control at two years postintervention (OR 8.1, 95% CI 2.7 to 25.0; P < 0.001; 420 women; moderate-quality evidence). In the second study, there was a significant increase in scores on the Health Belief Model (that included the constructs of awareness and perceived susceptibility) at one month postintervention in the educational group (mean 1.21, SD 2.54; 65 women) compared to the control group (mean 0.15, SD 2.94; 65 women; P = 0.045).Neither study reported outcomes relating to motivation to check their breasts, confidence to seek help, time from breast symptom discovery to presentation to a healthcare professional, intentions to seek help, quality of life, adverse effects of the interventions, stages of breast cancer, survival estimates or breast cancer mortality rates. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of two RCTs, a brief intervention has the potential to increase women's breast cancer awareness. However, findings of this review should be interpreted with caution, as GRADE assessment identified moderate-quality evidence in only one of the two studies reviewed. In addition, the included trials were heterogeneous in terms of the interventions, population studied and outcomes measured. Therefore, current evidence cannot be generalised to the wider context. Further studies including larger samples, validated outcome measures and longitudinal approaches are warranted. PMID: 28185268 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Can Vertical Integration Reduce Hospital Readmissions? A Difference-in-Differences Approach.

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Can Vertical Integration Reduce Hospital Readmissions? A Difference-in-Differences Approach. Med Care. 2017 May;55(5):506-513 Authors: Lopes S, Fernandes ÓB, Marques AP, Moita B, Sarmento J, Santana R Abstract BACKGROUND: Vertical integration is expected to improve communication and coordination between inpatient care and care after discharge. Despite being used across health systems worldwide, evidence about its impact on readmissions is sparse and contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of vertical integration on hospital readmissions. RESEARCH DESIGN, SUBJECTS, AND MEASURES: Using difference-in-differences we compared readmissions before and after vertical integration in 6 Portuguese hospitals for years 2004-2013. A control group with 6 similar hospitals not integrated was utilized. Considered outcome was 30-day unplanned readmission. We used logistic regression at the admission level and accounted for patients' risk factors using claims data. Analyses for each hospital and selected conditions were also run. RESULTS: Our results suggest that readmissions decreased overall after vertical integration [odds ratio (OR)=0.900; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.812-0.997]. Hospital analysis indicated that there was no impact for 2 hospitals (OR=0.960; 95% CI, 0.848-1.087 and OR=0.944; 95% CI, 0.857-1.038), and a positive effect in 4 hospitals (greatest effect: OR=0.811; 95% CI, 0.736-0.894). A positive evolution was observed for a limited number of conditions, with better results for diabetes with complications (OR=0.689; 95% CI, 0.525-0.904), but no impact regarding congestive heart failure (OR=1.067; 95% CI, 0.827-1.377). CONCLUSIONS: Merging acute and primary care providers was associated with reduced readmissions, even though improvements were not found for all institutions or condition-specific groups. There are still challenges to be addressed regarding the success of vertical integration in reducing 30-day hospital re admissions. PMID: 28403012 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

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Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Int J Cancer. 2017 Apr 15;140(8):1836-1844 Authors: Zamora-Ros R, Barupal DK, Rothwell JA, Jenab M, Fedirko V, Romieu I, Aleksandrova K, Overvad K, Kyrø C, Tjønneland A, Affret A, His M, Boutron-Ruault MC, Katzke V, Kühn T, Boeing H, Trichopoulou A, Naska A, Kritikou M, Saieva C, Agnoli C, Santucci de Magistris M, Tumino R, Fasanelli F, Weiderpass E, Skeie G, Merino S, Jakszyn P, Sánchez MJ, Dorronsoro M, Navarro C, Ardanaz E, Sonestedt E, Ericson U, Maria Nilsson L, Bodén S, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Perez-Cornago A, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT, Freisling H, Cross AJ, Riboli E, Scalbert A Abstract Flavonoids have been shown to inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and protect against colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models. However, epidemiological evidence on the potential role of flavonoid intake in colorectal cancer (CRC) development remains sparse and inconsistent. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses and risk of development of CRC, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cohort of 477,312 adult men and women were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary intakes of total flavonoids and individual subclasses were estimated using centre-specific validated dietary questionnaires and composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 4,517 new cases of primary CRC were identified, of which 2,869 were colon (proximal = 1,298 and distal = 1,266) and 1,648 rectal tumours. No association was found between total flavonoid intake and the risk of overall CRC (HR for comparison of extreme quintiles 1.05, 95% CI 0.93-1.18; p-trend = 0.58) or any CRC subtype. No association was also observed with any intake of individual flavonoid subclasses. Similar results were observed for flavonoid intake expressed as glycosides or aglycone equivalents. Intake of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses, as estimated from dietary questionnaires, did not show any association with risk of CRC development. PMID: 28006847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations among People at Different Activity of Daily Living Limitation Stages.

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Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations among People at Different Activity of Daily Living Limitation Stages. Health Serv Res. 2017 Feb;52(1):132-155 Authors: Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose SM, Stineman MG, Pan Q, Bogner H, Kurichi JE, Streim JE, Xie D Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine whether higher activity of daily living (ADL) limitation stages are associated with increased risk of hospitalization, particularly for ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) conditions. DATA SOURCE: Secondary data analysis, including 8,815 beneficiaries from 2005 to 2006 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS). STUDY DESIGN: ADL limitation stages (0-IV) were determined at the end of 2005. Hospitalization rates were calculated for 2006 and age adjusted using direct standardization. Multivariate negative binomial regression, adjusting for baseline demographic and health characteristics, with the outcome hospitalization count was performed to estimate the adjusted rate ratio of ACS and non-ACS hospitalizations for beneficiaries with ADL stages > 0 compared to beneficiaries without limitations. DATA COLLECTION: Baseline ADL stage and health conditions were assessed using 2005 MCBS data and count of hospitalization determined using 2006 MCBS data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Referenced to stage 0, the adjusted rate ratios (95 percent confidence interval) for stage I to stage IV ranged from 1.9 (1.4-2.5) to 4.1 (2.2-7.8) for ACS hospitalizations compared with from 1.6 (1.3-1.9) to 1.8 (1.4-2.5) for non-ACS hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization rates for ACS conditions increased more dramatically with ADL limitation stage than did rates for non-ACS conditions. Adults with ADL limitations appear particularly vulnerable to potentially preventable hospitalizations for conditions typically manageable in ambulatory settings. PMID: 26990312 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fiber intake modulates the association of alcohol intake with breast cancer.

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Fiber intake modulates the association of alcohol intake with breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2017 Jan 15;140(2):316-321 Authors: Romieu I, Ferrari P, Chajès V, de Batlle J, Biessy C, Scoccianti C, Dossus L, Christine Boutron M, Bastide N, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Kaaks R, Boeing H, Trichopoulou A, Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Palli D, Sieri S, Tumino R, Vineis P, Panico S, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Gils CH, Peeters PH, Lund E, Skeie G, Weiderpass E, Ramón Quirós J, Chirlaque MD, Ardanaz E, Sánchez MJ, Duell EJ, Amiano Etxezarreta P, Borgquist S, Hallmans G, Johansson I, Maria Nilsson L, Khaw KT, Wareham N, Key TJ, Travis RC, Murphy N, Wark PA, Riboli E Abstract Alcohol intake has been related to an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) while dietary fiber intake has been inversely associated to BC risk. A beneficial effect of fibers on ethanol carcinogenesis through their impact on estrogen levels is still controversial. We investigated the role of dietary fiber as a modifying factor of the association of alcohol and BC using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This study included 334,850 women aged 35-70 years at baseline enrolled in the ten countries of the EPIC study and followed up for 11.0 years on average. Information on fiber and alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) of developing invasive BC according to different levels of alcohol and fiber intake were computed. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident BC cases were diagnosed. For subjects with low intake of fiber (<18.5 g/day), the risk of BC per 10 g/day of alcohol intake was 1.06 (1.03-1.08) while among subjects with high intake of fiber (>24.2 g/day) the risk of BC was 1.02 (0.99-1.05) (test for interaction p = 0.011). This modulating effect was stronger for fiber from vegetables. Our results suggest that fiber intake may modulate the positive association of alcohol intake and BC. Alcohol is well known to increase the risk for BC, while a fiber-rich diet has the opposite effect. Here the authors find a significant interaction between both lifestyle factors indicating that high fiber intake can ease the adverse effects associated with alcohol consumption. Consequently, women with high alcohol intake and low fiber intake (<18.5 g/day) had the highest risk for BC. Specific benefits were associated with fibers from vegetable, warranting further investigations into specific fiber sources and their mechanistic interactions with alcohol-induced BC risk. PMID: 27599758 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Iodine intakes and status in Irish adults: is there cause for concern?

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Iodine intakes and status in Irish adults: is there cause for concern? Br J Nutr. 2017 Feb;117(3):422-431 Authors: McNulty BA, Nugent AP, Walton J, Flynn A, Tlustos C, Gibney MJ Abstract I is an important mineral for health, required for the production of key thyroid hormones, which are essential for cellular metabolism, growth and physical development. Hence, adequate I is crucial at all stages of life, but imperative during pregnancy for fetal brain development and during a child's early life for neurodevelopment. Within Ireland, limited information exists on population I intakes and status. Therefore, the purposes of the present analysis were to estimate dietary I intakes and to analyse urinary iodine (UI) status using the cross-sectional National Adult Nutrition Survey 2008-2010 and the most recent Irish Total Diet Study. Median I intakes in the total population (n 1106) were adequate with only 26 % of the population being classified as below the estimated average requirement (EAR). Milk consumption was the major source of I in the diet, contributing 45 % to total intake. Likewise, median UI concentrations (107 µg/l) indicated 'optimal' I nutrition according to the WHO cut-off points. In our cohort, 77 % of women of childbearing age (18-50 years) did not meet the EAR recommendation set for pregnant women. Although I is deemed to be sufficient in the majority of adult populations resident in Ireland, any changes to the current dairy practices could significantly impact intake and status. Continued monitoring should be of priority to ensure that all subgroups of the population are I sufficient. PMID: 28215206 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse survival among women with ovarian cancer: Results from a pooled analysis of 19 studies.

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Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse survival among women with ovarian cancer: Results from a pooled analysis of 19 studies. Int J Cancer. 2017 Jun 01;140(11):2422-2435 Authors: Praestegaard C, Jensen A, Jensen SM, Nielsen TS, Webb PM, Nagle CM, DeFazio A, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, Høgdall E, Rossing MA, Doherty JA, Wicklund KG, Goodman MT, Modugno F, Moysich K, Ness RB, Edwards R, Matsuo K, Hosono S, Goode EL, Winham SJ, Fridley BL, Cramer DW, Terry KL, Schildkraut JM, Berchuck A, Bandera EV, Paddock LE, Massuger LF, Wentzensen N, Pharoah P, Song H, Whittemore A, McGuire V, Sieh W, Rothstein J, Anton-Culver H, Ziogas A, Menon U, Gayther SA, Ramus SJ, Gentry-Maharaj A, Wu AH, Pearce CL, Pike M, Lee AW, Sutphen R, Chang-Claude J, Risch HA, Kjaer SK, Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium Abstract Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is associated with ovarian cancer survival overall or for the different histotypes is unestablished. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the association between cigarette smoking and survival differs according to strata of ovarian cancer stage at diagnosis. In a large pooled analysis, we evaluated the association between various measures of cigarette smoking and survival among women with epithelial ovarian cancer. We obtained data from 19 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), including 9,114 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted study-specific hazard ratios (HRs), which were combined into pooled hazard ratios (pHR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under random effects models. Overall, 5,149 (57%) women died during a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Among women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, both current (pHR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.08-1.28) and former smokers (pHR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.18) had worse survival compared with never smoking women. In histotype-stratified analyses, associations were observed for mucinous (current smoking: pHR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.01-3.65) and serous histotypes (current smoking: pHR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00-1.23; former smoking: pHR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.20). Further, our results suggested that current smoking has a greater impact on survival among women with localized than disseminated disease. The identification of cigarette smoking as a modifiable factor associated with survival has potential clinical importance as a focus area to improve ovarian cancer prognosis. PMID: 28063166 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Who detects melanoma? Impact of detection patterns on characteristics and prognosis of patients with melanoma.

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Who detects melanoma? Impact of detection patterns on characteristics and prognosis of patients with melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Nov;75(5):967-974 Authors: Avilés-Izquierdo JA, Molina-López I, Rodríguez-Lomba E, Marquez-Rodas I, Suarez-Fernandez R, Lazaro-Ochaita P Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of early diagnosis, patients with cutaneous melanoma often seek consultation at advanced stages of the disease. The impact on prognosis according to who first detects the primary tumor has not been established. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine who first detects melanoma, the reasons that patients with melanoma consult a doctor, and the impact of detection patterns on the characteristics and prognosis of melanoma. METHODS: Seven hundred eighty-three patients with cutaneous melanoma who were diagnosed between 1996 and 2012 were included. Associations between who first noticed the melanoma (ie, self-detected, relatives, health care workers, or dermatologists), epidemiology, clinical presentation, histology, and patient outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Most melanomas were self-detected (53%). Among these patients, 32% consulted because of bleeding, itching/pain, or nodule enlargement. There were more melanomas self-detected among women than among men, and these had a better prognosis. Men had significantly more melanomas on non-easily visible locations than women did. Among melanomas noticed by dermatologists, 80% were incidental findings. Self-detected melanomas were thicker and more frequently ulcerated, developed metastases more often, and were associated with more melanoma-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with melanomas detected by dermatologists had better prognoses than patients with self-detected melanomas. Patients with melanomas that were self-detected by women had better prognoses than those that were self-detected by men, especially for patients >70 years of age. This group might therefore be a logical target for melanoma detection education. PMID: 27645105 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The persistence of the effects of acupuncture after a course of treatment: a meta-analysis of patients with chronic pain.

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The persistence of the effects of acupuncture after a course of treatment: a meta-analysis of patients with chronic pain. Pain. 2017 May;158(5):784-793 Authors: MacPherson H, Vertosick EA, Foster NE, Lewith G, Linde K, Sherman KJ, Witt CM, Vickers AJ Abstract There is uncertainty regarding how long the effects of acupuncture treatment persist after a course of treatment. We aimed to determine the trajectory of pain scores over time after acupuncture, using a large individual patient data set from high-quality randomized trials of acupuncture for chronic pain. The available individual patient data set included 29 trials and 17,922 patients. The chronic pain conditions included musculoskeletal pain (low back, neck, and shoulder), osteoarthritis of the knee, and headache/migraine. We used meta-analytic techniques to determine the trajectory of posttreatment pain scores. Data on longer term follow-up were available for 20 trials, including 6376 patients. In trials comparing acupuncture to no acupuncture control (wait-list, usual care, etc), effect sizes diminished by a nonsignificant 0.011 SD per 3 months (95% confidence interval: -0.014 to 0.037, P = 0.4) after treatment ended. The central estimate suggests that approximately 90% of the benefit of acupuncture relative to controls would be sustained at 12 months. For trials comparing acupuncture to sham, we observed a reduction in effect size of 0.025 SD per 3 months (95% confidence interval: 0.000-0.050, P = 0.050), suggesting approximately a 50% diminution at 12 months. The effects of a course of acupuncture treatment for patients with chronic pain do not seem to decrease importantly over 12 months. Patients can generally be reassured that treatment effects persist. Studies of the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture should take our findings into account when considering the time horizon of acupuncture effects. Further research should measure longer term outcomes of acupuncture. PMID: 27764035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Internet-based skin cancer screening using clinical images alone or in conjunction with dermoscopic images: A randomized teledermoscopy trial.

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Internet-based skin cancer screening using clinical images alone or in conjunction with dermoscopic images: A randomized teledermoscopy trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Apr;76(4):676-682 Authors: Ferrándiz L, Ojeda-Vila T, Corrales A, Martín-Gutiérrez FJ, Ruíz-de-Casas A, Galdeano R, Álvarez-Torralba I, Sánchez-Ibáñez F, Domínguez-Toro JM, Encina F, Narbona FJ, Herrerías-Esteban JM, Moreno-Ramírez D Abstract BACKGROUND: Teledermoscopy involves the use of dermoscopic images for remote consultation and decision-making in skin cancer screening. OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyze the potential benefits gained from the addition of dermoscopic images to an internet-based skin cancer screening system. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial assessed the diagnostic performance and cost-effectiveness of clinical teleconsultations (CTC) and clinical with dermoscopic teleconsultations. RESULTS: A total of 454 patients were enrolled in the trial (nCTC = 226, nclinical with dermoscopic teleconsultation = 228). Teledermoscopy improved sensitivity and specificity (92.86% and 96.24%, respectively) compared with CTC (86.57% and 72.33%, respectively). Correct decisions were made in 94.30% of patients through clinical with dermoscopic teleconsultations and in 79.20% in CTC (P < .001). The only variable associated with an increased likelihood of correct diagnosis was management using teledermoscopy (odds ratio 4.04; 95% confidence interval 2.02-8.09; P < .0001). The cost-effectiveness analysis showed teledermoscopy as the dominant strategy, with a lower cost-effectiveness ratio (65.13 vs 80.84). LIMITATIONS: Potentially, a limitation is the establishment of an experienced dermatologist as the gold standard for the in-person evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of dermoscopic images significantly improves the results of an internet-based skin cancer screening system, compared with screening systems based on clinical images alone. PMID: 28089728 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Patients experiences of negative pressure wound therapy at home for the treatment of deep perivascular groin infection after vascular surgery.

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Patients experiences of negative pressure wound therapy at home for the treatment of deep perivascular groin infection after vascular surgery. J Clin Nurs. 2017 May;26(9-10):1405-1413 Authors: Monsen C, Acosta S, Kumlien C Abstract AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore experiences of negative pressure wound therapy at home, in patients with deep perivascular groin infection after vascular surgery and management in daily life. BACKGROUND: Deep surgical site infection after vascular surgery with exposed vessels often requires long-term treatment with negative pressure wound therapy, and continued therapy at home has become routine. DESIGN: An explorative qualitative study. METHODS: Nine men and six women with a deep surgical site infection in the groin after vascular surgery, treated in their home with negative pressure wound therapy, were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using manifest and latent content analysis. RESULTS: Undergoing negative pressure wound therapy at home meant a transition from being a dependent patient to a person who must have self-care competence and be involved in their own care. A need to feel prepared for this before discharge from hospital was expressed. Lack of information and feelings of uncertainty prolonged the time before feeling confident in managing the treatment. The informants gradually accepted the need to be tied up to a machine, became competent in its management and found solutions to perform everyday tasks. Overall, it was a relief to be treated at home. CONCLUSIONS: Several benefits of negative pressure wound therapy at home were expressed. However, unnecessary stress and anxiety were experienced due to a lack of information on the treatment and instruction concerning the equipment. Adequate information and education must therefore be provided to facilitate the transition from a patient to a person with self-care competence and ability to manage this treatment at home. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The findings revealed a need for more support and knowledge in their transition from hospital care to home care with negative pressure wound therapy. Routines must be established that ensure patient safety and security in treatment at home. PMID: 28001332 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Peritonsillar Abscess.

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Peritonsillar Abscess. Am Fam Physician. 2017 Apr 15;95(8):501-506 Authors: Galioto NJ Abstract Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep infection of the head and neck, occurring primarily in young adults. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical presentation and examination. Symptoms and findings generally include fever, sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, and a "hot potato" voice. Drainage of the abscess, antibiotic therapy, and supportive therapy for maintaining hydration and pain control are the cornerstones of treatment. Most patients can be managed in the outpatient setting. Peritonsillar abscesses are polymicrobial infections, and antibiotics effective against group A streptococcus and oral anaerobes should be first-line therapy. Corticosteroids may be helpful in reducing symptoms and speeding recovery. Promptly recognizing the infection and initiating therapy are important to avoid potentially serious complications, such as airway obstruction, aspiration, or extension of infection into deep neck tissues. Patients with peritonsillar abscess are usually first encountered in the primary care outpatient setting or in the emergency department. Family physicians with appropriate training and experience can diagnose and treat most patients with peritonsillar abscess. PMID: 28409615 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Patient reported outcome measures of quality of end-of-life care: A systematic review.

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Patient reported outcome measures of quality of end-of-life care: A systematic review. Maturitas. 2017 Feb;96:16-25 Authors: Kearns T, Cornally N, Molloy W Abstract End-of-life (EoL) care(1) is increasingly used as a generic term in preference to palliative care or terminal care, particularly with reference to individuals with chronic disease, who are resident in community and long-term care (LTC) settings. This review evaluates studies based on patient reported outcome measures (PROMS) of quality of EoL care across all health-care settings. From 1041 citations, 12 studies were extracted by searches conducted in EBSCO, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, Open Grey and Google Scholar databases. At present, the evidence base for EoL care is founded on cancer care. This review highlights the paucity of studies that evaluate quality of EoL care for patients with chronic disease outside the established cancer-acute care paradigm, particularly in LTC. This review highlights the absence of any PROMs for the estimated 60% of patients in LTC with cognitive impairment. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are critical to understanding how EoL care services and practices affect patients' health and EoL experience. PROMs describe the quality of care from the patient's perspective and add balance to existing clinical or proxy-derived knowledge on the quality of care and services provided. PMID: 28041590 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The role of oral antibiotics prophylaxis in prevention of surgical site infection in colorectal surgery.

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The role of oral antibiotics prophylaxis in prevention of surgical site infection in colorectal surgery. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2017 Jan;32(1):1-18 Authors: Koullouros M, Khan N, Aly EH Abstract BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) continues to be a challenge in colorectal surgery. Over the years, various modalities have been used in an attempt to reduce SSI risk in elective colorectal surgery, which include mechanical bowel preparation before surgery, oral antibiotics and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis at induction of surgery. Even though IV antibiotics have become standard practice, there has been a debate on the exact role of oral antibiotics. AIM: The primary aim was to identify the role of oral antibiotics in reduction of SSI in elective colorectal surgery. The secondary aim was to explore any potential benefit in the use of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) in relation to SSI in elective colorectal surgery. METHODS: Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. Any randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cohort studies after 1980, which investigated the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis and/or MBP in preventing SSIs in elective colorectal surgery were included. RESULTS: Twenty-three RCTs and eight cohorts were included. The results indicate a statistically significant advantage in preventing SSIs with the combined usage of oral and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Furthermore, our analysis of the cohort studies shows no benefits in the use of MBP in prevention of SSIs. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of oral antibiotics to systemic antibiotics could potentially reduce the risk of SSIs in elective colorectal surgery. Additionally, MBP does not seem to provide a clear benefit with regard to SSI prevention. PMID: 27778060 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Unmet palliative care needs in elderly trauma patients: can the Palliative Performance Scale help close the gap?

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Unmet palliative care needs in elderly trauma patients: can the Palliative Performance Scale help close the gap? Am J Surg. 2017 Apr;213(4):778-784 Authors: McGreevy CM, Bryczkowski S, Pentakota SR, Berlin A, Lamba S, Mosenthal AC Abstract BACKGROUND: The elderly injured have significant palliative care (PC) needs due to increased mortality and poor functional outcomes. We hypothesized the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) could be predictive of poor outcomes in elderly trauma patients. METHODS: Retrospective study of trauma patients 55 years or older admitted to the surgical intensive care unit. Using logistic regression, PPS was assessed as a predictor of mortality, Glasgow Outcome Scale, and discharge destination. RESULTS: Out of 153 patients, 28 died; 28% of the survivors had a Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 or less and 13% were discharged to dependent care. PPS score of 80 or less was an independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 2.97 [1.08 to 8.66]), poor functional outcome (OR: 12.59 [4.81 to 37.07]), and discharge to dependent care (OR: 8.13 [2.64 to 30.09]), yet only 52% of the patients with PPS of 80 or less received PC. CONCLUSIONS: Admission PPS can predict mortality and poor functional outcomes in elderly trauma patients, and has potential as a trigger for delivery of PC in this vulnerable population. PMID: 28160967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Interventions to prevent and treat corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis and prevent osteoporotic fractures in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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Interventions to prevent and treat corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis and prevent osteoporotic fractures in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 01 24;1:CD010899 Authors: Bell JM, Shields MD, Watters J, Hamilton A, Beringer T, Elliott M, Quinlivan R, Tirupathi S, Blackwood B Abstract BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid treatment is considered the 'gold standard' for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); however, it is also known to induce osteoporosis and thus increase the risk of vertebral fragility fractures. Good practice in the care of those with DMD requires prevention of these adverse effects. Treatments to increase bone mineral density include bisphosphonates and vitamin D and calcium supplements, and in adolescents with pubertal delay, testosterone. Bone health management is an important part of lifelong care for patients with DMD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions to prevent or treat osteoporosis in children and adults with DMD taking long-term corticosteroids; to assess the effects of these interventions on the frequency of vertebral fragility fractures and long-bone fractures, and on quality of life; and to assess adverse events. SEARCH METHODS: On 12 September 2016, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL Plus to identify potentially eligible trials. We also searched the Web of Science ISI Proceedings (2001 to September 2016) and three clinical trials registries to identify unpublished studies and ongoing trials. We contacted correspondence authors of the included studies in the review to obtain information on unpublished studies or work in progress. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered for inclusion in the review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs involving any bone health intervention for corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis and fragility fractures in children, adolescents, and adults with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD. The interventions might have included oral and intravenous bisphosphonates, vitamin D supplements, calcium supplements, dietary calcium, testosterone, and weight-bearing activity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed reports and selected potential studies for inclusion, following standard Cochrane methodology. We contacted study authors to obtain further information for clarification on published work, unpublished studies, and work in progress. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 18 potential studies, of which two, currently reported only as abstracts, met the inclusion criteria for this review. Too little information was available for us to present full results or adequately assess risk of bias. The participants were children aged five to 15 years with DMD, ambulant and non-ambulant. The interventions were risedronate versus no treatment in one trial (13 participants) and whole-body vibration versus a placebo device in the second (21 participants). Both studies reported improved bone mineral density with the active treatments, with no improvement in the control groups, but the abstracts did not compare treatment and control conditions. All children tolerated whole-body vibration treatment. No study provided information on adverse events. Two studies are ongoing: one investigating whole-body vibration, the other investigating zoledronic acid. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We know of no high-quality evidence from RCTs to guide use of treatments to prevent or treat corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis and reduce the risk of fragility fractures in children and adults with DMD; only limited results from two trials reported in abstracts were available. We await formal trial reports. Findings from two ongoing relevant studies and two trials, for which only abstracts are available, will be important in future updates of this review. PMID: 28117876 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nanomedicines for advanced cancer treatments: Transitioning towards responsive systems.

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Nanomedicines for advanced cancer treatments: Transitioning towards responsive systems. Int J Pharm. 2016 Dec 30;515(1-2):132-164 Authors: van Elk M, Murphy BP, Eufrásio-da-Silva T, O'Reilly DP, Vermonden T, Hennink WE, Duffy GP, Ruiz-Hernández E Abstract The development of nanomedicines for the treatment of cancer focuses on the local targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to enhance drug efficacy and reduce adverse effects. The nanomedicines which are currently approved for clinical use are mainly successful in terms of improved bioavailability and tolerability but do not necessarily increase drug performance. Therefore, there is a need for improved drug carrier systems which are able to deliver high doses of anti-cancer drugs to the tumor. Stimuli responsive carriers are promising candidates since drug release can be triggered locally in the tumor via internal (i.e. pH, redox potential, metabolite or enzyme concentration) or external (i.e. heat, ultrasound, light, magnetic field) stimuli. This review summarizes the recent progress in the transition towards stimuli responsive nanomedicines (i.e. liposomes, polymeric micelles, nanogels and mesoporous silica nanoparticles) and other therapy modalities that are currently developed in the fight against cancer like the application of ultrasound, tumor normalization and phototherapy. Furthermore, the potential role of image guided drug delivery in the development of new nanomedicines and its clinical application is discussed. PMID: 27725268 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Incidence of Port-Site Hernias: A Survey and Literature Review.

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Incidence of Port-Site Hernias: A Survey and Literature Review. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2016 Dec;26(6):425-430 Authors: Holihan JL, Chen JS, Greenberg J, Hehir D, Johnston SM, Marcus D, Ryan H, Tsuda S, Liang MK Abstract BACKGROUND: The impact of laparoscopy on the prevalence of incisional hernias remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine (1) surgeon perceptions of port-site hernias (PSHs), (2) the true incidence of PSH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey on PSH was given to determine the surgeon-reported rate of PSH. A literature review was performed for studies with a primary outcome of PSH. Studies were evaluated using checklists, and scores were used to compare risk of bias. Risk of bias was graphed against PSH incidence. RESULTS: From 38 surgeons surveyed, the surgeon perceived rate of PSH was a median (range) of 0.5% (0% to 5%) for ports ≤5 mm, 5% (0.1% to 20%) for ports extended, and 5% (0.1% to 40%) for ports ≥10 mm. Thirty studies showed a PSH rate from 0% to 39.3%. Higher quality studies reported higher rates of PSH. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons underestimate the incidence of PSH, but high-quality literature suggests that it may be nearly 40%. PMID: 27846177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The potential for cross-addiction in post-bariatric surgery patients: Considerations for primary care nurse practitioners.

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The potential for cross-addiction in post-bariatric surgery patients: Considerations for primary care nurse practitioners. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2016 Dec;28(12):675-682 Authors: Bak M, Seibold-Simpson SM, Darling R Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Possible mental health issues for post-bariatric surgery patients include the development of cross-addictions after the rapid weight loss period. No validated screening tool to assess for possible cross-addictions exists. The main purpose of this study was to develop recommendations for modifying an existing addiction screening tool (the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire) for use by primary care providers. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design was used with triangulation of input from the scholarly literature, content experts (CEs), and post-bariatric surgery patients. Three focus groups were conducted with post-bariatric surgery patients (n = 12) with the same questions asked of the CEs (n = 3). Content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. CONCLUSIONS: The following themes regarding addictions after bariatric surgery were identified through consensus: alcohol, gambling, shopping, exercise, food starving/bingeing, and sexuality/relationships. Dissonant themes included caffeine and tobacco by the post-bariatric surgery patients and prescription/illicit medications by the CEs. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Targeted screening for early identification of problem behaviors by primary care providers may result in appropriate referral to and management by mental health providers, assisting ongoing success of bariatric surgery. PMID: 27400415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Postoperative Hypoglycemia Is Associated With Worse Outcomes After Cardiac Operations.

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Postoperative Hypoglycemia Is Associated With Worse Outcomes After Cardiac Operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017 Feb;103(2):526-532 Authors: Johnston LE, Kirby JL, Downs EA, LaPar DJ, Ghanta RK, Ailawadi G, Kozower BD, Kron IL, McCall AL, Isbell JM, Virginia Interdisciplinary Cardiothoracic Outcomes Research (VICTOR) Center Abstract BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is a known risk of intensive postoperative glucose control in patients undergoing cardiac operations. However, neither the consequences of hypoglycemia relative to hyperglycemia, nor the possible interaction effects, have been well described. We examined the effects of postoperative hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and their interaction on short-term morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Single-institution Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database patient records from 2010 to 2014 were merged with clinical data, including blood glucose values measured in the intensive care unit (ICU). Exclusion criteria included fewer than three glucose measurements and absence of an STS predicted risk of morbidity or mortality score. Primary outcomes were operative mortality and composite major morbidity (permanent stroke, renal failure, prolonged ventilation, pneumonia, or myocardial infarction). Secondary outcomes included ICU and postoperative length of stay. Hypoglycemia was defined as below 70 mg/dL, and hyperglycemia as above 180 mg/dL. Simple and multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 2,285 patient records met the selection criteria for analysis. The mean postoperative glucose level was 140.8 ± 18.8 mg/dL. Overall, 21.4% of patients experienced a hypoglycemic episode (n = 488), and 1.05% (n = 24) had a severe hypoglycemic episode (<40 mg/dL). The unadjusted odds ratio (UOR) for operative mortality for patients with any hypoglycemic episode compared with those without was 5.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.14 to 9.54), and the UOR for major morbidity was 4.66 (95% CI 3.55 to 6.11). After adjustment for predicted risk of morbidity or mortality and other significant covariates, the adjusted odds (AOR) of operative mortality were significant for patients with any hypoglycemia (AOR 4.88, 95% CI 2.67 to 8.92) and patients with both events (AOR 8.29, 95% CI 1.83 to 37.5) but not hyperglycemia alone (AOR 1.62, 95% CI 0.56 to 4.69). The AOR of major morbidity for patients with both hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events was 14.3 (95% CI 6.50 to 31.4). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative hypoglycemia is associated with both mortality and major morbidity after cardiac operations. The combination of both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia represents a substantial increase in risk. Although it remains unclear whether hypoglycemia is a cause, an early warning sign, or a result of adverse events, this study suggests that hypoglycemia may be an important event in the postoperative period after cardiac operations. PMID: 27570164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Self-Reported Physical Quality of Life Before Thoracic Operations Is Associated With Long-Term Survival.

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Self-Reported Physical Quality of Life Before Thoracic Operations Is Associated With Long-Term Survival. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017 Feb;103(2):484-490 Authors: Al-Ameri M, Bergman P, Franco-Cereceda A, Sartipy U Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim was to analyze the association between baseline self-reported health-related quality of life and long-term survival after thoracic operations. METHODS: In a prospective population-based cohort study, we included patients scheduled for thoracic operations and obtained information about preoperative health-related quality of life using the validated quality-of-life instrument Short Form-36. Patients were categorized according to higher or lower physical and mental component scores, compared with an age- and sex-matched reference population. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality and was ascertained from Swedish national registers. We used Cox regression for estimation of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between preoperative physical/mental quality of life and long-term survival while adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics, cancer stage, histopathologic process, and other factors. RESULTS: We included 249 patients between 2006 and 2008. During a median follow-up time of 8.0 years, 119 patients (48%) died. Having a physical component summary score less than reference was significantly associated with mortality (multivariable adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI: 1.34 to 3.06, p = 0.001). A mental component summary score less than reference was not associated with mortality (adjusted HR 1.32, 95% CI: 0.84 to 3.06, p = 0.233). CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent thoracic operations, a self-reported physical quality of life lower than reference value was associated with significantly worse survival independent of histopathologic process, cancer stage, extent of operations, and other patient-related factors. The preoperative mental component of quality of life was not associated with long-term survival. PMID: 27666786 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Linezolid versus vancomycin for nosocomial pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the elderly: A retrospective cohort analysis: Effectiveness of linezolid in the elderly.

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Linezolid versus vancomycin for nosocomial pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the elderly: A retrospective cohort analysis: Effectiveness of linezolid in the elderly. Am J Emerg Med. 2017 Feb;35(2):245-248 Authors: Takada H, Hifumi T, Nishimoto N, Kanemura T, Yoshioka H, Okada I, Kiriu N, Inoue J, Koido Y, Kato H Abstract OBJECTIVES: Several reports have compared the efficacy of linezolid (LZD) in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections with that of vancomycin (VCM); however, these two antibiotics for the treatment of nosocomial MRSA pneumonia in elderly patients has not been well evaluated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of LZD compared with VCM for the treatment of elderly patients with nosocomial MRSA pneumonia in a retrospective chart review of a cohort. METHODS: We included 28 consecutive patients aged ≥65years hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia and treated with LZD (n=11) or VCM (n=17) between November 2010 and May 2015. We collected patient, disease, and laboratory data. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. The secondary outcomes were the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) total, respiratory, renal, coagulation, hepatic, cardiovascular, and central nervous system scores on days 1, 3, 7, and 14. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to baseline characteristics. The 30-day mortality rate was significantly lower in the LZD group than in the VCM group (0% vs. 41%, P=.02). The SOFA total score on days 3, 7, and 14 were significantly lower those at baseline in the LZD group (P<.05). The SOFA respiratory score on days 14 was also significantly lower than baseline in the LZD group (P<.05). CONCLUSION: LZD may be more efficacious than VCM for treating elderly patients with nosocomial MRSA pneumonia. PMID: 27832976 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Necessity of hospitalization and stress testing in low risk chest pain patients.

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Necessity of hospitalization and stress testing in low risk chest pain patients. Am J Emerg Med. 2017 Feb;35(2):274-280 Authors: Beri N, Marston NA, Daniels LB, Nowak RM, Schreiber D, Mueller C, Jaffe A, Diercks DB, Wettersten N, DeFilippi C, Peacock WF, Limkakeng AT, Anand I, McCord J, Hollander JE, Wu AH, Apple FS, Nagurney JT, Berardi C, Cannon CM, Clopton P, Neath SX, Christenson RH, Hogan C, Vilke G, Maisel A Abstract BACKGROUND: Copeptin is a marker of endogenous stress including early myocardial infarction(MI) and has value in early rule out of MI when used with cardiac troponin I(cTnI). OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to demonstrate that patients with a normal electrocardiogram and cTnI<0.040μg/l and copeptin<14pmol/l at presentation and after 2 h may be candidates for early discharge with outpatient follow-up potentially including stress testing. METHODS: This study uses data from the CHOPIN trial which enrolled 2071 patients with acute chest pain. Of those, 475 patients with normal electrocardiogram and normal cTnI(<0.040μg/l) and copeptin<14pmol/l at presentation and after 2 h were considered "low risk" and selected for further analysis. RESULTS: None of the 475 "low risk" patients were diagnosed with MI during the 180day follow-up period (including presentation). The negative predictive value of this strategy was 100% (95% confidence interval(CI):99.2%-100.0%). Furthermore no one died during follow up. 287 (60.4%) patients in the low risk group were hospitalized. In the "low risk" group, the only difference in outcomes (MI, death, revascularization, cardiac rehospitalization) was those hospitalized underwent revascularization more often (6.3%[95%CI:3.8%-9.7%] versus 0.5%[95%CI:0.0%-2.9%], p=.002). The hospitalized patients were tested significantly more via stress testing or angiogram (68.6%[95%CI:62.9%-74.0%] vs 22.9%[95%CI:17.1%-29.6%], p<.001). Those tested had less cardiac rehospitalizations during follow-up (1.7% vs 5.1%, p=.040). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients with a normal electrocardiogram, troponin and copeptin at presentation and after 2 h are at low risk for MI and death over 180days. These low risk patients may be candidates for early outpatient testing and cardiology follow-up thereby reducing hospitalization. PMID: 27847253 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Association of Sociodemographic Factors with Spirituality and Hope in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

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Association of Sociodemographic Factors with Spirituality and Hope in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2017 Jan;30(1):34-39 Authors: Salomé GM, de Almeida SA, Mendes B, de Carvalho MR, Bueno JC, Massahud MR, Ferreira LM Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate levels of spirituality and hope in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) according to sociodemographic factors. DESIGN: This was a primary, prospective, descriptive, analytical, and clinical study. Questionnaires assessing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, the Spirituality Self-rating Scale (SSRS), and the Herth Hope Index (HHI) were administered to all participants. SETTING: University-affiliated skilled nursing center and outpatient wound care clinic in Pouso Alegre, Brazil. PATIENTS: Fifty adult patients with DFUs participated in the study. Patients with ischemic diabetic foot and mixed ulcers were excluded from the study. MAIN RESULTS: On average, patients with DFUs had low levels of spirituality (mean SSRS score, 12.6) and low hope for cure (mean HHI, 16.5). Patients younger than 60 years reported significantly lower levels of spirituality (mean SSRS scores, 11.0), and those older than 70 years had significantly lower hope for cure (mean HHI, 12.5) than other age groups (P = .040). Level of spirituality was significantly lower among women (P = .015) and those living with an ulcer for more than 2 years, who also reported significantly lower hope for cure (P = .029) compared with patients having an ulcer for less than 2 years. CONCLUSION: On average, patients with DFUs, especially women and older adults, had a low sense of hope and spirituality. Except for gender, age, and ulcer duration, other sociodemographic and ulcer characteristics had no significant effect on the study population's spirituality and hope. PMID: 27984272 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The role of the general practitioner in cancer care: a survey of the patients’ perspective.

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The role of the general practitioner in cancer care: a survey of the patients' perspective. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017 May;143(5):895-904 Authors: Lang V, Walter S, Fessler J, Koester MJ, Ruetters D, Huebner J Abstract PURPOSE: Modern cancer care is provided in highly specialized structures as certificated centres and comprehensive cancer center, as well as specialized practices. In contrast, the position of the general practitioner (GP) is less well characterised and there is a lack of information about his importance in the care for cancer patients. The aim of our survey was to assess the role of GPs in German cancer care from patients' perspective. METHODS: In several steps we developed a standardized anonymous questionnaire in cooperation with the German Association of General Practitioners and the Federal Association of German Self-Help Groups. This questionnaire was used in a print and an online version and distributed by the self-help organizations to their members. RESULTS: Seven hundred and forty participants took part in the survey, 66.5% women and 30.1% men. 71% had visited the GP during cancer therapy and 34.5% discussed decisions concerning diagnostics and therapy with him. The most relevant reasons to visit the GP during cancer therapy were to get a blood test (63.3%), comorbidities (42.7%) and complaints and side effects (38.3%). For the latter, most often a detailed discussion ensued (57%), fooled by a prescription (37.7%). In 63.4% the GP offered support when patients had some questions or worries concerning their cancer. Yet, 17% of the patients reported that the GP did not try to help. 85.5% of the participants thought that it is important that their GP is informed about the therapy on a regular basis. For 77.0%, a simultaneous care provided by the GP is important or very important. CONCLUSION: Our survey points to the importance of the GP during cancer therapy from the patient's point of view. Patients want their GP to take an active part in the cancer therapy. Furthermore, early integration of the GP may also enhance early integration of palliative care and also help family members and caregivers. A strategy to integrate GPs is the establishment of shared care models, in which GPs are supported by specialists and get additional training in cancer care. PMID: 28188361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Effectiveness of a Peer Coaching Education on Control and Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Women: A Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

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The Effectiveness of a Peer Coaching Education on Control and Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Women: A Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2017 Apr;5(2):153-164 Authors: Aalaa M, Sanjari M, Aghaei Meybodi HR, Amini MR, Qorbani M, Adibi H, Mehrdad N Abstract BACKGROUND: Diabetes Education by Peer Coaching is a strategy which helps the patients with diabetes in the field of behavioral and emotional problems. However, the results of studies in this field in other countries could not be generalized in our context. So, the current study aimed to examine the effectiveness of Diabetes Education by Peer Coaching on Diabetes Management. METHODS: Outcome variables for patients and peer coaches are measured at baseline and in3,6 and 12 months. The primary outcome consisted of Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) and HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included Blood Pressure (BP), Body Mass Index (BMI,) Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR), Lipid Profile, diabetes self-care activities, diabetes-related quality of life, depression, and Social Capital levels.Initial analyses compared the frequency of baseline levels of outcome and other variables using a simple Chi-square test, t-test and the Mann-Whitney- U test. Sequential measurements in each group were evaluated by two-way analysis of variance. If significant differences in baseline characteristics were found, analyses were repeated adjusting for these differences using ANOVA and logistic regression for multivariate analyses. Additional analyses were conducted to look for the evidence of effect modification by pre-specified subgroups. CONCLUSION: The fact is that self-control and self-efficacy in diabetes management and treatment of diabetes could be important components. It seems that this research in this special setting with cultural differences would provide more evidence about peer-coaching model. It seems that if the peer-coaching model improves learning situations between patients with diabetes by offering one-on-one Diabetes Self Management Education, it could be an interactive approach to diabetic education. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201501128175N3. PMID: 28409169 [PubMed - in process]

Toward improved survivorship: supportive care needs of esophageal cancer patients, a literature review.

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Toward improved survivorship: supportive care needs of esophageal cancer patients, a literature review. Dis Esophagus. 2016 Nov;29(8):1081-1089 Authors: Graham L, Wikman A Abstract The growing prevalence of esophageal cancer survivors represent a population typified by an extensive treatment regime, significant postsurgical long-term effects, and a dismal prognosis. Despite this, little is known of the supportive care needs of this patient group and the extent to which these are being met in practice. This review provides a synthesis of the research evidence to date; emphasizing opportunities for clinical application and setting a future agenda with research priorities. A literature search was performed using Medline/Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Search headings used included; [esophagus] or [esopohageal] or [upper gastrointestinal] or [upper GI] AND [cancer] or [carcinoma] or [squamous cell] AND [supportive care] or [survivorship] or [psychological] or [emotional] or [information] or [social] or [communication] or [spiritual] or [health-related-quality-of-life] or [HRQL] or [qualitative] or [patient narrative] or [clinical nurse specialist] or [CNS]. Related articles in English were reviewed, with additional articles harvested from reference sections. Esophageal cancer survivors report significant late-term effects posttreatment, encompassing sustained impairment in most areas of health-related quality of life. With a necessitated change in eating behavior, survivors find it particularly challenging to adjust to a new social identity and as a cancer population report high levels of psychological morbidity. Although the determinants of psychological morbidity are largely unknown, illness representations may be a key contributor. Several multidisciplinary supportive care interventions have been developed with promising results. The research summarized in this paper provides valuable insight into the psychosocial well-being of the esophageal cancer survivor. However, knowledge gaps remain, alongside a dearth of applied examples in meeting supportive care need. PMID: 26455727 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A short review of drug-food interactions of medicines treating overactive bladder syndrome.

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A short review of drug-food interactions of medicines treating overactive bladder syndrome. Int J Clin Pharm. 2016 Dec;38(6):1350-1356 Authors: Paśko P, Rodacki T, Domagała-Rodacka R, Owczarek D Abstract Background Overactive bladder syndrome is a condition where one or more of the symptoms such as pollakiuria, urgent need to urinate, nocturia and urinary incontinence is observed. Its prevalence ranges between 7 and 27 % in men and 9-43 % in women. The role of a pharmacist is to educate the patient on medications administration scheme, and drug interactions with particular food or food components. Aim of the review To assess a potential impact of food and fruit juice on the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic effects of medications used in treating overactive bladder syndrome. This information will enhance pharmaceutical care and is vital and helpful for pharmacists counseling their patients. Method In order to gather information on interactions of medications employed in bladder dysfunctions, the English language reports published in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and CINAHL database over the years 1996-2015 were studied. Additionally, other resources, namely drugs.com, Medscape, UpToDate, Micromedex, Medical Letter, as well as Stockley Drugs Interaction electronic publication were included in the study. The analysis also covered product data sheets for particular medicinal products. Results Meals and the consumption of grapefruit juice were found to exert a diversified effect on the pharmacokinetics of drugs employed in overactive bladder syndrome therapy. Neither tolterodine, nor mirabegron interact with food and citrus fruit juice, whereas darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin and solifenacin do interact with grapefruit and others citrus fruit juice. The effects of such interactions may potentially be negative to patients. Trospium absorption is significantly decreased by food. Conclusion For selected medicines used in treating bladder dysfunctions food and grapefruit juice consumption may significantly affect efficacy and safety of the therapy. All information on the topic is likely to enhance the quality of pharmaceutical care. PMID: 27738922 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Patients’ experiences of support for learning to live with diabetes to promote health and well-being: A lifeworld phenomenological study.

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Patients' experiences of support for learning to live with diabetes to promote health and well-being: A lifeworld phenomenological study. Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2016;11:31330 Authors: Johansson K, Österberg SA, Leksell J, Berglund M Abstract Learning to live with diabetes in such a way that the new conditions will be a normal and natural part of life imposes requirements on the person living with diabetes. Previous studies have shown that there is no clear picture of what and how the learning that would allow persons to incorporate the illness into their everyday life will be supported. The aim of this study is to describe the phenomenon of support for learning to live with diabetes to promote health and well-being, from the patient's perspective. Data were collected by interviews with patients living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The interviews were analysed using a reflective lifeworld approach. The results show that reflection plays a central role for patients with diabetes in achieving a new understanding of the health process, and awareness of their own responsibility was found to be the key factor for such a reflection. The constituents are responsibility creating curiosity and willpower, openness enabling support, technology verifying bodily feelings, a permissive climate providing for participation and exchanging experiences with others. The study concludes that the challenge for caregivers is to create interactions in an open learning climate that initiates and supports reflection to promote health and well-being. PMID: 27539956 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Comparison of immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy and mastectomy alone for breast cancer: A meta-analysis.

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Comparison of immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy and mastectomy alone for breast cancer: A meta-analysis. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017 Feb;43(2):285-293 Authors: Zhang P, Li CZ, Wu CT, Jiao GM, Yan F, Zhu HC, Zhang XP Abstract BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare patient outcomes between immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after mastectomy and mastectomy alone. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search of PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. The primary outcomes evaluated in this review were overall survival, disease-free survival and local recurrence. Secondary outcome was the incidence of surgical site infection. All data were analyzed using Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies, involving of 139,894 participants were included in this paper. Pooled data demonstrated that women who had IBR after mastectomy were more likely to experience surgical site infection than those treated with mastectomy alone (risk ratios 1.51, 95% CI: 1.22-1.87; p = 0.0001). There were no significant differences in overall survival (hazard ratios 0.92, 95% CI: 0.80-1.06; p = 0.25) and disease-free survival (hazard ratios 0.96, 95% CI: 0.84-1.10; p = 0.54) between IBR after mastectomy and mastectomy alone. No significant difference was found in local recurrence between two groups (risk ratios 0.92, 95% CI: 0.75-1.13; p = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that IBR after mastectomy does not affect the overall survival and disease-free survival of breast cancer. Besides, no evidence shows that IBR after mastectomy increases the frequency of local recurrence. PMID: 27503441 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mobile and Wearable Technology Needs for Aging in Place: Perspectives from Older Adults and Their Caregivers and Providers.

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Mobile and Wearable Technology Needs for Aging in Place: Perspectives from Older Adults and Their Caregivers and Providers. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2016;225:486-90 Authors: Wang J, Carroll D, Peck M, Myneni S, Gong Y Abstract There is an increasing number of wearable trackers and mobile devices in the burgeoning world of digital health, the purpose of the study is to explore the role of these mobile and wearable tools among older adults aging in place. We conducted a cross sectional study using individual interviews with older adults and surveys with their caregivers or providers. We interviewed 29 residents living in a retirement community, and surveyed 6 caregivers or providers. The older adults had an average age of 88 years, most did not express interests on technology and heavily relied on providers for health tracking, while their professional caregivers or providers saw a great need to access older adults' health information collected from these mobile and wearable tools. Educating the older old on the benefits of mobile and wearable tools may address such discrepancy on needs of adopting mobile and wearable tools for aging in place. PMID: 27332248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Impact of practice change in reducing venous thromboembolism in neurocritical overweight patients: 2008-2014.

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Impact of practice change in reducing venous thromboembolism in neurocritical overweight patients: 2008-2014. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2017 Jan;43(1):98-104 Authors: Samuel S, Bajgur S, Savarraj JP, Choi HA Abstract Publications regarding early initiating venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis have been available since the early 1990s. These recommendations became available in current guidelines on and after 2012. The purpose of this study is to review the practice change in reducing the incidence of VTE in brain injury patients from 2008 to 2014. This was a single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study. Data was extracted from our data base that included patients over 100 kg from January 2008 to August 2014. Included were all patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of acute brain and spinal injury to neurocritical care unit. Clinical endpoints examined were incidence of bleeding and VTE. A total of 509 patients who met the inclusion criteria were divided into two groups: The previous group (n = 212) included patients from 2008 to 2010, and the recent group (n = 297) included patients from 2011 to 2014. The time for initiating VTE prophylaxis from admission was (median, IQR) 73 h (37-140) vs. 34 h (20-46); p < 0.01. There were no differences in major and minor bleeding complications. Discontinuation of VTE prophylaxis for association with progressive bleeding was not documented in any of the study patients. The incidence of VTE was 10 % (22/212) vs. 5 % (15/297); p = 0.02. In hospital LOS in days was 16 (10-26) vs. 7 (4-15); P < 0.01. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only the time of the initiation VTE prophylaxis after admission was significantly associated with the occurrence of VTE (median, IQR) 70 h (37-158) vs. 36 h (20-63); OR 1.004, 95 % CI 1.001-1.007; P < 0.01. In this 6-year review of data, early initiation of VTE prophylaxis has decreased the incidence of VTE without clinically documented bleeding complications. PMID: 27605371 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Why didn’t I know? Perspectives from adult children of elderly parents with dementia.

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Why didn't I know? Perspectives from adult children of elderly parents with dementia. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2016 Dec;28(12):668-674 Authors: Nogueras DJ, Postma J, Van Son C Abstract PURPOSE: Approximately 27 million adults are living with undiagnosed dementia worldwide. The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of adult children of elderly parents who were ultimately diagnosed with dementia. DATA SOURCES: A descriptive qualitative design was used for identifying if there were prodromal signs or symptoms that preceded the more commonly known warning signs of dementia. Twelve, 60-min interviews were conducted over the telephone. CONCLUSIONS: The overarching theme was: "Why didn't I know?" Subthemes were "We ignored it because we didn't want it to be," "We thought it was grief," and "They wouldn't diagnose dementia." Normal aging changes often mask the identification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Healthcare providers should screen patients for dementia when cognitive concerns or changes become apparent. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition and the Mini-Cog can be used for screening cognitive changes. Since depression may be misinterpreted as dementia, screening for depression should also be included if there is a potential for overlap. This is important in those patients who are experiencing grief, as many signs and symptoms of early grief are the same as early dementia. PMID: 27221639 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Early primary care follow-up after ED and hospital discharge – does it affect readmissions?

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Early primary care follow-up after ED and hospital discharge - does it affect readmissions? Hosp Pract (1995). 2017 Apr;45(2):51-57 Authors: Sinha S, Seirup J, Carmel A Abstract OBJECTIVES: After hospitalization, timely discharge follow-up has been linked to reduced readmissions in the heart failure population, but data from general inpatients has been mixed. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between completed follow-up appointments within 14 days of hospital discharge and 30-day readmission amongst primary care patients at an urban academic medical center. Index discharges included both inpatient and emergency room settings. A secondary objective was to identify patient factors associated with completed follow-up appointments within 14 days. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of primary care patients at an urban academic medical center who were discharged from either the emergency department (ED) or inpatient services at the Weill Cornell Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital from 1 January 2014-31 December 2014. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the relationship between follow-up in primary care within 14 days and readmission within 30 days. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of patient factors with 14-day follow-up. RESULTS: Among 9,662 inpatient and ED discharges, multivariable analysis (adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance, number of diagnoses on problem list, length of stay, and discharge service) showed that follow-up with primary care within 14 days was not associated with a lower hazard of readmission within 30 days (HR = 0.78; 95% CI 0.56-1.09). A higher number of diagnoses on the problem list was associated with greater odds of follow-up for both inpatient and emergency department discharges (inpatient: HR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04; ED: HR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04). For inpatient discharges, each additional day in length of stay was associated with 3% lower odds of follow-up (HR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99). CONCLUSION: Early follow-up within 14 days after discharge from general inpatient services was associated with a trend toward lower hazard of 30-day readmission though this finding was not significant. Future studies should focus on identifying additional cohorts of patients in which readmission is reduced by early follow-up, so that access to primary care appointments is not compromised. PMID: 28095063 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Familial colorectal cancer: Patient assessment, surveillance and surgical management.

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Familial colorectal cancer: Patient assessment, surveillance and surgical management. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017 Feb;43(2):294-302 Authors: Kennelly RP, Gryfe R, Winter DC Abstract Germline mutations account for 5-10% of colorectal cancer. Most mutations are autosomal dominant with high penetrance and affected patients benefit greatly from appropriate treatment. This review presents the current knowledge regarding familial colorectal cancer and provides practical information based on international guidelines and the best available evidence regarding patient assessment, surveillance and surgical management. Surgeons are often the first point of contact and frequently, the main provider of care for families with cancer syndromes or patients with familial cancer. Patients with a polyposis phenotype should undergo appropriate genetic testing. In non-polyposis patients with a cancer diagnosis, tumor testing for Lynch syndrome can guide the use of genetic testing. In patients without a personal history of cancer or polyposis, a carefully obtained family history with testing of available tumor tissue or of a living relative affected by colorectal cancer informs the need for genetic testing. Surveillance and surgical management should be planned following thorough assessment of familial cancer risk. Evidence exists to provide guidance as to the surveillance strategies required, the specific indications of genetic testing and the appropriate timing of operative intervention. A carefully obtained family history with selective genetic testing should inform surveillance and surgical management in patients who have a genetic predisposition for the development of colorectal cancer. PMID: 27546013 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Beyond a single pathway: combination therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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Beyond a single pathway: combination therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eur Respir Rev. 2016 Dec;25(142):408-417 Authors: Sitbon O, Gaine S Abstract There is a strong rationale for combining therapies to simultaneously target three of the key pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Evidence to support this strategy is growing, and a number of studies have demonstrated that combination therapy, administered as either a sequential or an initial regimen, can improve long-term outcomes in PAH. Dual combination therapy with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor and an endothelin receptor antagonist is the most widely utilised combination regimen. However, some patients fail to achieve their treatment goals on dual therapy and may benefit from the addition of a third drug. The use of triple therapy in clinical practice was previously reserved for patients with severe disease due to the need for parenteral administration of prostanoids. Although triple therapy with parenteral prostanoids plays a key role in the management of severe PAH, the approval of oral therapies that target the prostacyclin pathway means that all three pathways can now be targeted with oral drugs at an earlier disease stage. Furthermore, there is evidence demonstrating that this approach can delay disease progression. Based on the evidence available, it is becoming increasingly clear that all PAH patients should be offered the benefits of combination therapy. PMID: 27903663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

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Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet. 2016 11 12;388(10058):2416-2430 Authors: Sweeney RM, McAuley DF Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome presents as hypoxia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging in the absence of heart failure sufficient to account for this clinical state. Management is largely supportive, and is focused on protective mechanical ventilation and the avoidance of fluid overload. Patients with severe hypoxaemia can be managed with early short-term use of neuromuscular blockade, prone position ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The use of inhaled nitric oxide is rarely indicated and both β2 agonists and late corticosteroids should be avoided. Mortality remains at approximately 30%. PMID: 27133972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Toward a patient-centered ambulatory after-visit summary: Identifying primary care patients’ information needs.

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Toward a patient-centered ambulatory after-visit summary: Identifying primary care patients' information needs. Inform Health Soc Care. 2017 Apr 11;:1-16 Authors: Clarke MA, Moore JL, Steege LM, Koopman RJ, Belden JL, Canfield SM, Kim MS Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the information needs of primary care patients as they review clinic visit notes to inform information that should be contained in an after-visit summary (AVS). METHOD: We collected data from 15 patients with an acute illness and 14 patients with a chronic disease using semi-structured interviews. The acute patients reviewed seven major sections, and chronic patients reviewed eight major sections of a simulated, but realistic visit note to identify relevant information needs for their AVS. RESULTS: Patients in the acute illness group identified the Plan, Assessment and History of Present Illness the most as important note sections, while patients in the chronic care group identified Significant Lab Data, Plan, and Assessment the most as important note sections. DISCUSSION: This study was able to identify primary care patients' information needs after clinic visit. Primary care patients have information needs pertaining to diagnosis and treatment, which may be the reason why both patient groups identified Plan and Assessment as important note sections. Future research should also develop and assess an AVS based on the information gathered in this study and evaluate its usefulness among primary care patients. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study can be used to inform the development of an after-visit summary that assists patients to fully understand their treatment plan, which may improve treatment adherence. PMID: 28398094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of community-based management of chronic hepatitis C: a mixed methods systematic review protocol.

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Clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of community-based management of chronic hepatitis C: a mixed methods systematic review protocol. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2017 Apr;15(4):914-931 Authors: Pourmarzi D, Hall L, Rahman T, Lim D, FitzGerald G Abstract REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The current mixed methods review aims to develop an aggregated synthesis of quantitative, qualitative and economic systematic evidence on chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection management intervention delivered in community settings so as to gain an increased understanding of the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of community-based chronic HCV management. This review will contribute to the development of a community-based chronic HCV intervention and inform clinical practice and policy discussion. The overarching question is: What is the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of community-based programs for chronic HCV management? PMID: 28398978 [PubMed - in process]

Predicting risk and outcomes for frail older adults: an umbrella review of frailty screening tools.

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Predicting risk and outcomes for frail older adults: an umbrella review of frailty screening tools. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2017 Apr;15(4):1154-1208 Authors: Apóstolo J, Cooke R, Bobrowicz-Campos E, Santana S, Marcucci M, Cano A, Vollenbroek-Hutten M, Germini F, Holland C Abstract BACKGROUND: A scoping search identified systematic reviews on diagnostic accuracy and predictive ability of frailty measures in older adults. In most cases, research was confined to specific assessment measures related to a specific clinical model. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the best available evidence from systematic reviews in relation to reliability, validity, diagnostic accuracy and predictive ability of frailty measures in older adults. INCLUSION CRITERIA POPULATION: Older adults aged 60 years or older recruited from community, primary care, long-term residential care and hospitals. INDEX TEST: Available frailty measures in older adults. REFERENCE TEST: Cardiovascular Health Study phenotype model, the Canadian Study of Health and Aging cumulative deficit model, Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment or other reference tests. DIAGNOSIS OF INTEREST: Frailty defined as an age-related state of decreased physiological reserves characterized by an increased risk of poor clinical outcomes. TYPES OF STUDIES: Quantitative systematic reviews. SEARCH STRATEGY: A three-step search strategy was utilized to find systematic reviews, available in English, published between January 2001 and October 2015. METHODOLOGICAL QUALITY: Assessed by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist for systematic reviews and research synthesis. DATA EXTRACTION: Two independent reviewers extracted data using the standardized data extraction tool designed for umbrella reviews. DATA SYNTHESIS: Data were only presented in a narrative form due to the heterogeneity of included reviews. RESULTS: Five reviews with a total of 227,381 participants were included in this umbrella review. Two reviews focused on reliability, validity and diagnostic accuracy; two examined predictive ability for adverse health outcomes; and one investigated validity, diagnostic accuracy and predictive ability. In total, 26 questionnaires and brief assessments and eight frailty indicators were analyzed, most of which were applied to community-dwelling older people. The Frailty Index was examined in almost all these dimensions, with the exception of reliability, and its diagnostic and predictive characteristics were shown to be satisfactory. Gait speed showed high sensitivity, but only moderate specificity, and excellent predictive ability for future disability in activities of daily living. The Tilburg Frailty Indicator was shown to be a reliable and valid measure for frailty screening, but its diagnostic accuracy was not evaluated. Screening Letter, Timed-up-and-go test and PRISMA 7 (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) demonstrated high sensitivity and moderate specificity for identifying frailty. In general, low physical activity, variously measured, was one of the most powerful predictors of future decline in activities of daily living. CONCLUSION: Only a few frailty measures seem to be demonstrably valid, reliable and diagnostically accurate, and have good predictive ability. Among them, the Frailty Index and gait speed emerged as the most useful in routine care and community settings. However, none of the included systematic reviews provided responses that met all of our research questions on their own and there is a need for studies that could fill this gap, covering all these issues within the same study. Nevertheless, it was clear that no suitable tool for assessing frailty appropriately in emergency departments was identified. PMID: 28398987 [PubMed - in process]

Depression influences pain and function after cervical disc arthroplasty.

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Depression influences pain and function after cervical disc arthroplasty. J Neurosurg Sci. 2017 02;61(1):39-45 Authors: He J, Xiong W, Li F, Luo W, Gao SC Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent researches confirm that there is a prevalence of depression in patients with cervical spine disease such as cervical spondylosis. Emotional distress has been found to be relevant to back pain surgical outcome, but their influence has not been prospectively evaluated for cervical spine surgical outcomes. If the relationship between depressed mood and poor cervical spine surgical outcomes was confirmed, spine surgeons could use a brief screening instrument to identify patients who might benefit from consultation with a psychiatrist. METHODS: Data from subjects enrolled in a single medical center were analyzed. Data collection occurred at baseline, 3 months and 12 months. Emotional distress were measured with the 9-Item Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). At follow-up, patients completed measures of 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). A total of 61 subjects completed the one year follow-up. Demographic (age and gender) and social (marital status, employment status, and receiving disability funds) characteristics were recorded. RESULTS: PHQ-9 with lower scores group predicted less neck and arm pain (NRS) after surgery. Similarly, PHQ-9 with lower scores group predicted better physical function (NDI, SF-12) after surgery. Other significant contributors were included, such as receiving disability funds, duration of pain before surgery, and employment status. CONCLUSIONS: Depression influences pain and function after cervical disc arthroplasty. Further studies need to identify and intervene with patients with poorer emotional status, which will clarify whether presurgical mental health intervention can improve pain and functional outcomes after surgery or whether these patients are not candidates for surgery. PMID: 25215583 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Organized Abuse in Adulthood: Survivor and Professional Perspectives.

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Organized Abuse in Adulthood: Survivor and Professional Perspectives. J Trauma Dissociation. 2017 Feb 23;:1-13 Authors: Salter M Abstract This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a qualitative study of Australian women disclosing organized abuse in adulthood and the mental health professionals who treat them. Drawing on interviews with survivors and mental health professionals, the paper analyses the fraught relationship between mental health and physical safety for adults subject to organized abuse. The therapeutic progress of adult organized abuse victims can be disrupted by ongoing threats, stalking, and group violence, which in turn reinforces the dissociative responses and pathological attachments that render them vulnerable to revictimization. The paper argues that breaking this cycle requires intervention from multiple agencies, and describes the responses of police, medical services, and child protection services to adult organized abuse from the perspective of survivors and mental health practitioners. Highlighting systemic failures but also opportunities, the paper calls for a coordinated response to organized abuse in adulthood, including inter-agency partnerships to support safety and bolster the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. PMID: 28323542 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Understanding persons with psychological distress in primary health care.

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Understanding persons with psychological distress in primary health care. Scand J Caring Sci. 2016 Dec;30(4):687-694 Authors: Arvidsdotter T, Marklund B, Kylén S, Taft C, Ekman I Abstract The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge and a deeper understanding of experiences of persons living with psychological distress who seek help in primary care. Psychological distress is a state of emotional suffering associated with stressors and demands that are difficult to cope with in daily life. The lack of effective care for and difficulty in identifying psychological distress is frustrating for patients and health professionals alike. The aim was therefore to gain more knowledge about the experience of living with psychological distress. Twelve persons (nine women and three men) aged 23-51 years were interviewed. Analyses were based on a phenomenological hermeneutic method and indicated that psychological distress may be seen as an imbalance (incongruence) between the self and the ideal self, which slowly breaks down a person's self-esteem. This imbalance was described in three dimensions: Struggling to cope with everyday life, Feeling inferior to others and Losing one's grip on life. It seems to be associated with a gradual depletion of existential capacities and lead to dissatisfaction, suffering, poor self-esteem and lack of control. As psychological distress may be a forerunner to mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, there is a need to initiate preventive or early interventions to avoid mental, physical and emotional chaos in such patients. Patients' with psychological distress need to be involved in a person-centred salutogenic dialogue with health professionals to become aware of and strengthen their own capacities to regain health and well-being. PMID: 26463897 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Reducing menopausal symptoms for women during the menopause transition using group education in a primary health care setting-a randomized controlled trial.

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Reducing menopausal symptoms for women during the menopause transition using group education in a primary health care setting-a randomized controlled trial. Maturitas. 2017 Apr;98:14-19 Authors: Rindner L, Strömme G, Nordeman L, Hange D, Gunnarsson R, Rembeck G Abstract OBJECTIVES: Women's physical and mental ill-health shows a marked increase during menopause, which usually occurs between 45 and 55 years of age. Mental illness and somatic symptoms are common causes of long-term sick leave. Women suffer from a lack of knowledge about the menopause transition and its associated symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate whether group education for women in primary health care (PHC) about the menopause transition can improve their physical and mental ill-health. STUDY DESIGN: This randomized controlled study was conducted in PHC and aimed to evaluate a group education programme for women aged 45-55 years, around the menopause transition. A total of 131 women were randomized to group education or no intervention. The group intervention included two education sessions with topics related to menopause. They answered two questionnaires at baseline and at four-month follow-up: the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in MRS and MADRS scores over the four months. RESULTS: The intervention group experienced a slight reduction in symptoms while the control group mostly experienced the opposite. CONCLUSION: This study showed that it was feasible to implement group education on menopause for women aged 45-55 years. THE CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NTC02852811. PMID: 28274323 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Elevated Hemoglobin A1c Is Associated With Lower Socioeconomic Position and Increased Postoperative Infections and Longer Hospital Stay After Cardiac Surgical Procedures.

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Elevated Hemoglobin A1c Is Associated With Lower Socioeconomic Position and Increased Postoperative Infections and Longer Hospital Stay After Cardiac Surgical Procedures. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017 Jan;103(1):145-151 Authors: Finger B, Brase J, He J, Gibson WJ, Wirtz K, Flynn BC Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients with elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels have an increased risk of adverse short- and long-term outcomes after cardiac surgical procedures. Whether elevated HbA1c levels are associated with lower socioeconomic position (SEP) has been unknown. METHODS: All adult patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures at Kansas University Medical Center in Kansas City, Kansas in 2014 (n = 567) were reviewed. Of those patients, 531 had a preoperative HbA1c level measured. HbA1c was delineated as 7% or lower or greater than 7%. The two aims of this study were to evaluate a possible association of HbA1c and SEP and to evaluate for a possible association of HbA1c levels and poor outcomes after cardiac surgical procedures. The primary postsurgical outcomes were infections and intensive care unit length of stay. RESULTS: HbA1c levels greater than 7% were associated with lower SEP (p = 0.005) and with increased risk of infection postoperatively (p < 0.001). Total hospital length of stay tended to be longer for patients with HbA1c greater than 7% (p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated HbA1c levels are associated with lower SEP. This association not only may hinder the ability to correct HbA1c levels, but also may impart a risk for elevated HbA1c levels. Additionally, patients who present for cardiac operations with HbA1c greater than 7% have an increased risk of postoperative infections. PMID: 27553502 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fumaric acid esters for psoriasis: a systematic review.

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Fumaric acid esters for psoriasis: a systematic review. Ir J Med Sci. 2017 Feb;186(1):161-177 Authors: Smith D Abstract BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Effective and safe long term treatment options are required to manage the illness successfully. A number of systemic agents are available, however, each of them has potentially significant side effects. Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are used first line in Germany for the management of moderate to severe psoriasis, however, their use in Ireland is on an unlicensed basis (Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 37:786-801, 2012). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FAEs in the management of moderate to severe psoriasis in adult patients. The reviewer intends to systematically review all available literature on the efficacy and/or safety of fumaric acid esters in the management of moderate to severe psoriasis in adult patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed by one reviewer. The PubMed, TRIP, Embase, and Cochrane Collaboration databases were systematically interrogated to include randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and case studies evaluating the efficacy and/or safety of FAEs in the management of moderate to severe psoriasis in adult patients. Inclusion criteria were studies which included adults over 18 years of age, with a diagnosis of moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis, who were treated with FAEs and no other systemic anti-psoriatic agents concurrently. Exclusion criteria were studies involving children, mild psoriasis, studies which did not include patients with chronic plaque psoriasis, the use of FAE for the management of illnesses other than psoriasis, and patients treated with more than one systemic anti-psoriatic agent concurrently. RESULTS: In total 19 articles were selected for review including 2 randomised placebo controlled trials, 1 non-randomised comparative study, 7 retrospective cohort studies, 2 prospective cohort studies and 7 case studies. The findings suggest that FAEs are a safe and effective treatment option for the management of moderate to severe psoriasis in adult patients. Gastrointestinal side effects may occur on treatment initiation and may be minimised by slow dose titration. Lymphocytopenia and eosinophilia are common, however, they are rarely of significance and there is no high level of evidence available to suggest a resultant increased risk of infection or malignancy. Rarely alterations of renal and hepatic function may occur, however, these are largely reversible on treatment withdrawal. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the use of FAE in the management of moderate to severe psoriasis is a promising treatment option, especially for those patients intolerant of, or unresponsive to other agents. If blood parameters are closely monitored during treatment as per the European Medicine Agencies guidelines (European Medicines Agency, 'Updated recommendations to minimise the risk of the rare brain infection PML with Tecfidera', http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Press_release/2015/10/WC500196017.pdf , 2015) they may be safely used in practice. The licensing of FAEs in Ireland for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis would be desirable, increasing available treatment options. PMID: 27271164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Who accompanies patients to the chronic pain clinic?

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Who accompanies patients to the chronic pain clinic? Ir J Med Sci. 2017 Feb;186(1):235-238 Authors: Doltani D, Imran A, Saunders J, Harmon D Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients may be accompanied to the pain clinic consultation and these accompanying persons are relevant in the communication process. AIMS: We sought to characterize if patients were accompanied and by whom to the pain clinic. We also wished to determine the accompanying persons influence on the doctor-patient interaction. This has not been studied previously in this clinical setting. METHODS: Local ethics committee approval followed by written informed consent was obtained. Patients attending the pain clinic for the first time and review patients were included (n = 219). RESULTS: Twenty-one percent of patients (n = 46) were accompanied. Adult accompanied by spouse 19 (41.3 %) and adult child accompanied by parent 18 (39.1 %) were the most common dyads. The accompanying person's role was most frequently described by doctors as an advocate for the patient 30/46 (65.2 %) [for an adult accompanied by spouse (63.1 %)]. The influence of the main accompanying person on the patient doctor encounter was described as positive [adult accompanied by spouse (78.9 %)] [(adult accompanied by parent (94.4 %)]. CONCLUSIONS: Patients are accompanied to the pain clinic with a typically positive influence on doctor patient relationship and communication. Awareness of these issues is important in good communication in the pain clinic. PMID: 27566184 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The impact of exercise during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer on fatigue and quality of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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The impact of exercise during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer on fatigue and quality of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast. 2017 Apr;32:144-155 Authors: Lipsett A, Barrett S, Haruna F, Mustian K, O'Donovan A Abstract PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in breast cancer treatment has been proven to enhance outcome, improving recurrence and mortality rates. RT, however, gives rise to unfavourable side-effects, fatigue the most frequent. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of exercise (and different exercise prescription parameters) during adjuvant RT on fatigue among breast cancer patients. Quality of life was a secondary outcome. SEARCH METHODOLOGY AND SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials that investigated the effect of exercise during adjuvant RT on fatigue for breast cancer patients were searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, CINAHL, AMED and ClinicalTrials.gov. Reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews were also checked. RESULTS: Nine studies (802 participants) were included. A meta-analysis, including results for 738 participants, revealed that exercise was statistically more effective at reducing fatigue than the control intervention (SMD - 0.46, 95%CI -0.79 to -0.14). Statistically significant benefits of supervised, combined aerobicresistance exercise on fatigue were achieved. Further research is required to confirm this finding and determine the effect of alternative exercise modes. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise during adjuvant RT can be considered beneficial in breast cancer patients. Supervised, combined aerobic-resistance exercise shows promise in alleviating fatigue with further investigation into alternative exercise modes required. PMID: 28189100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Diabetes literacy and informal social support: a qualitative study of patients at a diabetes centre.

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Diabetes literacy and informal social support: a qualitative study of patients at a diabetes centre. J Clin Nurs. 2017 Jan;26(1-2):248-257 Authors: Black S, Maitland C, Hilbers J, Orinuela K Abstract AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the resources that patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes drew upon to manage the disease in their daily lives. BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a disease affecting Australian adults at a rate described as an 'epidemic'. Treatment usually focuses on patient self-management, which may require daily blood sugar monitoring, oral medications or injectable therapies, and regulating diet and exercise. Health research studies of patient self-management, including those involving type 2 diabetes, have focused largely on individual-centred definitions, though a number of studies, in particular qualitative studies, have indicated the positive role of social relationships and informal social networks. DESIGN: Exploratory, qualitative. METHODS: The project focused on 26 patients attending a diabetes centre for clinical consultations with centre staff including doctors, diabetes educators, podiatrists and dietitians. The consultations were observed and audio recorded, followed by semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews with the patients and separate interviews with the consulting professional staff. RESULTS: Overwhelmingly the patients drew on informal social networks of support to manage the disease. Spouses were significant, sometimes presenting with the patient as a 'team' approach to managing the disease. Sons and daughters also played a significant support role, especially interpreting during consultations and explaining health information. In some cases neighbours and also local community organisations provided informal support. Only two patients claimed not to use informal social support. CONCLUSIONS: Informal social support in patients' self-management of type 2 diabetes was found to be an important factor to be considered by clinicians. The study suggested the need for a more deliberate or pro-active policy to involve patients' family and other informal social networks in treatment programs. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Clinicians may need document and incorporate informal social support in the development and implementation of patient management plans. PMID: 27191540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dressings for the prevention of surgical site infection

Authors: Dumville JC, Gray TA, Walter CJ, Sharp CA, Page T, Macefield R, Blencowe N, Milne TKG, Reeves BC, Blazeby J.

Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD003091. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003091.pub4.

Pain and pain management in haemophilia.

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Pain and pain management in haemophilia. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2016 Dec;27(8):845-854 Authors: Auerswald G, Dolan G, Duffy A, Hermans C, Jiménez-Yuste V, Ljung R, Morfini M, Lambert T, Šalek SZ Abstract Joint pain is common in haemophilia and may be acute or chronic. Effective pain management in haemophilia is essential to reduce the burden that pain imposes on patients. However, the choice of appropriate pain-relieving measures is challenging, as there is a complex interplay of factors affecting pain perception. This can manifest as differences in patients' experiences and response to pain, which require an individualized approach to pain management. Prophylaxis with factor replacement reduces the likelihood of bleeds and bleed-related pain, whereas on-demand therapy ensures rapid bleed resolution and pain relief. Although use of replacement or bypassing therapy is often the first intervention for pain, additional pain relief strategies may be required. There is an array of analgesic options, but consideration should be paid to the adverse effects of each class. Nevertheless, a combination of medications that act at different points in the pain pathway may be beneficial. Nonpharmacological measures may also help patients and include active coping strategies; rest, ice, compression, and elevation; complementary therapies; and physiotherapy. Joint aspiration may also reduce acute joint pain, and joint steroid injections may alleviate chronic pain. In the longer term, increasing use of prophylaxis or performing surgery may be necessary to reduce the burden of pain caused by the degenerative effects of repeated bleeds. Whichever treatment option is chosen, it is important to monitor pain and adjust patient management accordingly. Beyond specific pain management approaches, ongoing collaboration between multidisciplinary teams, which should include physiotherapists and pain specialists, may improve outcomes for patients. PMID: 27439216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Detection of intracellular bacteria in exfoliated urothelial cells from women with urge incontinence.

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Detection of intracellular bacteria in exfoliated urothelial cells from women with urge incontinence. Pathog Dis. 2016 10;74(7): Authors: Cheng Y, Chen Z, Gawthorne JA, Mukerjee C, Varettas K, Mansfield KJ, Schembri MA, Moore KH Abstract The role of subclinical infection in patients with urge incontinence has been largely ignored. The aim of this study was to test for the presence of intracellular bacteria in exfoliated urothelial cells obtained from the urine of patients with detrusor overactivity or mixed incontinence +/- a history of UTI, and compare this to a control group of patients with stress incontinence and no history of infection. Bacterial cystitis was assessed by routine microbiology and compared to microscopic analysis of urine by Wright staining. Subsequent analysis of urothelial cells by confocal microscopy was performed to determine the existence of intracellular bacteria. Bacterial cystitis was seen in 13% of patients based on routine microbiology. Wright staining of concentrated urothelial cells demonstrated the presence of bacteria in 72% of samples. Filamentous bacterial cells were observed in 51% of patients and were significantly more common in patients with detrusor overactivity. Intracellular Escherichia coli were observed by confocal microscopy. This study supports the possibility that a subset of patients with urge incontinence may have unrecognised chronic bacterial colonisation, maintained via an intracellular reservoir. In patients with negative routine microbiology, application of the techniques used in this study revealed evidence of infection, providing further insights into the aetiology of urge incontinence. PMID: 27402784 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Institutional capacity to provide psychosocial oncology support services: A report from the Association of Oncology Social Work.

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Institutional capacity to provide psychosocial oncology support services: A report from the Association of Oncology Social Work. Cancer. 2016 06 15;122(12):1937-45 Authors: Zebrack B, Kayser K, Padgett L, Sundstrom L, Jobin C, Nelson K, Fineberg IC Abstract BACKGROUND: This study reports cancer-treating institutions' capacity to deliver comprehensive psychosocial support services. METHODS: Oncology care providers at 60 cancer-treating institutions completed surveys assessing the capacity of their institutions to provide psychosocial care. Capacity was assessed with the Cancer Psychosocial Care Matrix (CPCM) from the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Scores represented individuals' perceptions of their cancer program's performance with respect to 10 fundamental elements of psychosocial care. RESULTS: Among 2134 respondents, 62% reported a mid-level capacity for ≥5 of 10 CPCM items. In comparison with other types of cancer programs (eg, NCI-designated, academic, or comprehensive centers), providers at community cancer programs reported a significantly greater capacity with respect to patient-provider communication, psychosocial needs assessment, and continuity in the delivery of psychosocial care over time. Nurses and primary medical providers reported a significantly lower capacity for linking patients and families with needed psychosocial services within their respective cancer programs. They also reported a significantly higher capacity for conducting follow-up, re-evaluations, and adjustments of psychosocial treatment plans. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer programs are performing moderately well in terms of communicating to patients the importance of psychosocial care, identifying patient psychosocial needs, and referring patients and families to psychosocial services. They are doing less well with respect to the provision of that care over time. Findings suggest that gaps in psychosocial service capacity are a function of patient, provider, and system characteristics. These results may be useful in formulating strategies to enhance psychosocial care delivery. Cancer 2016;122:1937-45. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID: 27070342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Treatment of anticoagulated patients with negative pressure wound therapy.

Treatment of anticoagulated patients with negative pressure wound therapy. Int Wound J. 2017 Mar 15;: Authors: Boxall SL, Carville K, Leslie GD, Jansen SJ Abstract There is a paucity of evidence surrounding the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in patients receiving anticoagulant medication. Guidelines generally recommend caution regarding the use of NPWT in anticoagulated patients in general, but areas of particular risk are frequently not highlighted. The US Food and Drug Authority (FDA) reported six mortalities between 2009 and 2011 in patients receiving NPWT. These mortalities were associated with the use of NPWT over vascular graft sites. The coagulation status of these patients was not reported. It is the authors' recommendation that guidelines regarding the use of NPWT in anticoagulated patients highlight specific clinical situations of risk, although there is insufficient evidence to support the avoidance of NPWT in anticoagulated patients in general. PMID: 28294534 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effects on leisure activities and social participation of a case management intervention for frail older people living at home: a randomised controlled trial.

Effects on leisure activities and social participation of a case management intervention for frail older people living at home: a randomised controlled trial. Health Soc Care Community. 2017 Mar 12;: Authors: Granbom M, Kristensson J, Sandberg M Abstract Frailty causes disability and restrictions on older people's ability to engage in leisure activities and for social participation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 1-year case management intervention for frail older people living at home in Sweden in terms of social participation and leisure activities. The study was a randomised controlled trial with repeated follow-ups. The sample (n = 153) was consecutively and randomly assigned to intervention (n = 80) or control groups (n = 73). The intervention group received monthly home visits over the course of a year by nurses and physiotherapists working as case managers, using a multifactorial preventive approach. Data collections on social participation, leisure activities and rating of important leisure activities were performed at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, with recruitment between October 2006 and April 2011. The results did not show any differences in favour of the intervention on social participation. However, the intervention group performed leisure activities in general, and important physical leisure activities, to a greater extent than the control group at the 3-month follow-up (median 13 vs. 11, P = 0.034 and median 3 vs. 3, P = 0.031 respectively). A statistically significantly greater proportion of participants from the intervention group had an increased or unchanged number of important social leisure activities that they performed for the periods from baseline to 3 months (93.2% vs. 75.4%, OR = 4.48, 95% CI: 1.37-14.58). Even though statistically significant findings in favour of the intervention were found, more research on activity-focused case management interventions is needed to achieve clear effects on social participation and leisure activities. PMID: 28295847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Depressive symptomatology and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults.

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Depressive symptomatology and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults. Soc Sci Med. 2017 Feb 21;: Authors: Hoffman GJ, Hays RD, Wallace SP, Shapiro MF, Ettner SL Abstract RATIONALE: Falls are common among older adults and may be related to depressive symptoms (DS). With advancing age, there is an onset of chronic conditions, sensory impairments, and activity limitations that are associated with falls and with depressive disorders. Prior cross-sectional studies have observed significant associations between DS and subsequent falls as well as between fractures and subsequent clinical depression and DS. OBJECTIVE: The directionality of these observed relationship between falls and DS is in need of elaboration given that cross-sectional study designs can yield biased estimates of the DS-falls relationship. METHODS: Using 2006-2010 Health and Retirement Study data, cross-lagged panel structural equation models were used to evaluate associations between falls and DS among 7233 community-dwelling adults ages ≥65. Structural coefficients between falls and DS (in 2006→2008, 2008→2010) were estimated. RESULTS: A good-fitting model was found: Controlling for baseline (2006) physical functioning, vision, chronic conditions, and social support and neighborhood social cohesion, falls were not associated with subsequent DS, but a 0.5 standard deviation increase in 2006 DS was associated with a 30% increase in fall risk two years later. This DS-falls relationship was no longer significant when use of psychiatric medications, which was positively associated with falls, was included in the model. CONCLUSION: Using sophisticated methods and a large U.S. sample, we found larger magnitudes of effect in the DS-falls relationship than in prior studies-highlighting the risk of falls for older adults with DS. Medical providers might assess older individuals for DS as well as use of psychotropic medications as part of a broadened falls prevention approach. National guidelines for fall risk assessments as well as quality indicators for fall prevention should include assessment for clinical depression. PMID: 28279573 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Provider- and patient-related determinants of diabetes self-management among recent immigrants: Implications for systemic change.

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Provider- and patient-related determinants of diabetes self-management among recent immigrants: Implications for systemic change. Can Fam Physician. 2017 Feb;63(2):e137-e144 Authors: Hyman I, Shakya Y, Jembere N, Gucciardi E, Vissandjée B Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine provider- and patient-related factors associated with diabetes self-management among recent immigrants. DESIGN: Demographic and experiential data were collected using an international survey instrument and adapted to the Canadian context. The final questionnaire was pretested and translated into 4 languages: Mandarin, Tamil, Bengali, and Urdu. SETTING: Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 130 recent immigrants with a self-reported diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus who had resided in Canada for 10 years or less. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diabetes self-management practices (based on a composite of 5 diabetes self-management practices, and participants achieved a score for each adopted practice); and the quality of the provider-patient interaction (measured with a 5-point Likert-type scale that consisted of questions addressing participants' perceptions of discrimination and equitable care). RESULTS: A total of 130 participants in this study were recent immigrants to Canada from 4 countries of origin-Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and China. Two factors were significant in predicting diabetes self-management among recent immigrants: financial barriers, specifically, not having enough money to manage diabetes expenses (P = .0233), and the quality of the provider-patient relationship (P = .0016). Participants who did not have enough money to manage diabetes were 9% less likely to engage in self-management practices; and participants who rated the quality of their interactions with providers as poor were 16% less likely to engage in self-management practices. CONCLUSION: Financial barriers can undermine effective diabetes self-management among recent immigrants. Ensuring that patients feel comfortable and respected and that they are treated in culturally sensitive ways is also critical to good diabetes self-management. PMID: 28209706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Analysis of Relations Between the Level of Mg, Zn, Ca, Cu, and Fe and Depressiveness in Postmenopausal Women.

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Analysis of Relations Between the Level of Mg, Zn, Ca, Cu, and Fe and Depressiveness in Postmenopausal Women. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017 Mar;176(1):56-63 Authors: Szkup M, Jurczak A, Brodowska A, Brodowska A, Noceń I, Chlubek D, Laszczyńska M, Karakiewicz B, Grochans E Abstract Numerous observations suggest a possible connection between the levels of Mg, Zn, Fe, and Zn and the incidence of depressive symptoms. Depression is two to three times more common in women than in men. The menopausal period is extremely conducive to depressive disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the severity of depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women depending on the levels of Mg, Zn, Ca, Cu, and Fe. The study included 198 healthy postmenopausal women at the average age of 56.26 ± 5.55 years. In the first part of the study, standardized research tools were used, namely the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The second part involved biochemical analysis of Mg, Zn, Ca, Cu, and Fe levels in blood serum. The lowest Cu levels were observed in women without depressive symptoms (1.07 ± 0.22 mg/l) and the highest in those with severe depressive symptoms (1.19 ± 0.17 mg/l), (p ≤ 0.05). The lowest Mg levels were observed in women with depressive symptoms (14.28 ± 2.13 mg/l), and the highest in women without depressive symptoms (16.30 ± 3.51 mg/l), (p ≤ 0.05). The average serum Mg levels (15.75 ± 3.23 mg/l) decreased compared to the reference values (18.77-24 mg/l). What is striking is a potential relation between the levels of Mg and Cu and depressiveness. Our results indicate to a higher vulnerability to depression in a group of women with lower levels of Mg and higher levels of Cu. PMID: 27472940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Itch in the General Internal Medicine Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study of Prevalence and Quality-of-Life Effects.

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Itch in the General Internal Medicine Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study of Prevalence and Quality-of-Life Effects. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016 Dec;17(6):681-690 Authors: Silverberg JI, Hinami K, Trick WE, Cella D Abstract BACKGROUND: Itch is a well-established symptom in cutaneous disease. However, little is known about the burden of itch outside the dermatology setting. PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and impact of itch on quality of life (QOL) in the general internal medicine setting. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 2076 adults from an outpatient general internal medicine clinic, using an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview. A history of itch (acute or chronic) and other physical symptoms in the past week, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) 10-item Global Health Questionnaire scores, and Patient Health Questionnaire-2 scores were assessed. RESULTS: The prevalence of itch was 39.9 % and increased with age from 33.1 % at age 19-39 years to 45.9 % at age ≥80 years. In multivariable models controlled for socio-demographics, even feeling "a little" or "some" distress from itch was significantly associated with lower PROMIS global physical and mental health T-scores and estimated health utility scores (P ≤ 0.01). Further, feeling "quite a lot" of distress or "very much" distress from itch was associated with higher adjusted odds ratios for depressed mood (4.91 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.36-7.18]) and anhedonia (4.46 [95 % CI 3.07-6.47]). The patient burden of itch was similar to those of pain, constipation, sexual dysfunction, cough, and weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Itch occurs commonly in the primary care setting and is associated with poor QOL. Physicians should inquire about itch and its associations during review of systems. Future studies are needed to distinguish between the effects of acute and chronic itch. PMID: 27517368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Primary and Secondary Chemoprevention of Malignant Melanoma.

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Primary and Secondary Chemoprevention of Malignant Melanoma. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016 Dec;17(6):625-634 Authors: Mounessa J, Buntinx-Krieg T, Qin R, Dunnick CA, Dellavalle RP Abstract The incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) continues to rise in the United States. While sun protection and full body skin examinations remain the mainstay of preventative care, chemoprevention of the deadly disease has become an increasingly popular field of study. In this focused review, we discuss current findings and analyze the risks and benefits of various agents investigated for the primary and secondary chemoprevention of MM. Such agents include topical retinoids, vitamins, and supplements, Polypodium leucotomas extracts, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), statins, sunscreens, and field therapy with topical imiquimod for primary and secondary chemoprevention. We further identify a need for expanded high quality human research on the topic. PMID: 27665299 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The predictive value of increased sentinel lymph node volume in breast cancer.

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The predictive value of increased sentinel lymph node volume in breast cancer. Surg Oncol. 2016 Sep;25(3):321-5 Authors: Krasnick BA, Nathanson SD, Arbabi CN, Chitale DA, Peterson EL Abstract BACKGROUND: Breast cancer sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) with metastases (mets) are often palpably enlarged. We hypothesized that the volume of the SLN and the size of mets are directly related. SLNs harboring mets are often firm, with increased intra-nodal pressure (INP), and we hypothesized that SLN volume, as well as INP, would correlate directly with SLN metastasis size. METHODS: The SLN volume, INP and met size were measured in 296 SLNs and compared using linear regression analysis. The SLNs were subsequently grouped based upon pN stage. SLN INP and volume were compared between these resultant groups. RESULTS: Increased SLN volume significantly predicted increased SLN met size on univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). SLN met size predicted increased SLN INP on both univariate and multivariate analysis (both p = 0.001). SLN volume only significantly correlated with increased SLN INP on univariate analysis (p = 0.001). On subgroup analysis of nodal disease, pN1/2/3 nodes (SLN met sizes >2 mm) were significantly larger (p = 0.039 and p = 0.003, respectively) than pN0 and pN1(mi) nodes, and had significantly increased INP (all p = 0.001) as compared to pN0, pN0(i+), and pN1(mi) nodes. CONCLUSIONS: SLN volume and INP increased with increasing SLN met size. The threshold met size for this increase was >2 mm (pN1 disease). PMID: 27566039 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dressings for the prevention of surgical site infection.

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Dressings for the prevention of surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 12 20;12:CD003091 Authors: Dumville JC, Gray TA, Walter CJ, Sharp CA, Page T, Macefield R, Blencowe N, Milne TK, Reeves BC, Blazeby J Abstract BACKGROUND: Surgical wounds (incisions) heal by primary intention when the wound edges are brought together and secured, often with sutures, staples, or clips. Wound dressings applied after wound closure may provide physical support, protection and absorb exudate. There are many different types of wound dressings available and wounds can also be left uncovered (exposed). Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of wounds and this may be associated with using (or not using) dressings, or different types of dressing. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of wound dressings compared with no wound dressings, and the effects of alternative wound dressings, in preventing SSIs in surgical wounds healing by primary intention. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register (searched 19 September 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 8); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Daily and Epub Ahead of Print; 1946 to 19 September 2016); Ovid Embase (1974 to 19 September 2016); EBSCO CINAHL Plus (1937 to 19 September 2016).There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing wound dressings with wound exposure (no dressing) or alternative wound dressings for the postoperative management of surgical wounds healing by primary intention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors performed study selection, 'Risk of bias' assessment and data extraction independently. MAIN RESULTS: We included 29 trials (5718 participants). All studies except one were at an unclear or high risk of bias. Studies were small, reported low numbers of SSI events and were often not clearly reported. There were 16 trials that included people with wounds resulting from surgical procedures with a 'clean' classification, five trials that included people undergoing what was considered 'clean/contaminated' surgery, with the remaining studies including people undergoing a variety of surgical procedures with different contamination classifications. Four trials compared wound dressings with no wound dressing (wound exposure); the remaining 25 studies compared alternative dressing types, with the majority comparing a basic wound contact dressing with film dressings, silver dressings or hydrocolloid dressings. The review contains 11 comparisons in total. PRIMARY OUTCOME: SSIIt is uncertain whether wound exposure or any dressing reduces or increases the risk of SSI compared with alternative options investigated: we assessed the certainty of evidence as very low for most comparisons (and low for others), with downgrading (according to GRADE criteria) largely due to risk of bias and imprecision. We summarise the results of comparisons with meta-analysed data below:- film dressings compared with basic wound contact dressings following clean surgery (RR 1.34, 95% CI 0.70 to 2.55), very low certainty evidence downgraded once for risk of bias and twice for imprecision.- hydrocolloid dressings compared with basic wound contact dressings following clean surgery (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.30 to 2.78), very low certainty evidence downgraded once for risk of bias and twice for imprecision.- hydrocolloid dressings compared with basic wound contact dressings following potentially contaminated surgery (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.51), very low certainty evidence downgraded twice for risk of bias and twice for imprecision.- silver-containing dressings compared with basic wound contact dressings following clean surgery (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.47 to 2.62), very low certainty evidence downgraded once for risk of bias and twice for imprecision.- silver-containing dressings compared with basic wound contact dressings following potentially contaminated surgery (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.37), very low certainty evidence downgraded twice for risk of bias and twice for imprecision. Secondary outcomesThere was limited and low or very low certainty evidence on secondary outcomes such as scarring, acceptability of dressing and ease of removal, and uncertainty whether wound dressings influenced these outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is uncertain whether covering surgical wounds healing by primary intention with wound dressings reduces the risk of SSI, or whether any particular wound dressing is more effective than others in reducing the risk of SSI, improving scarring, reducing pain, improving acceptability to patients, or is easier to remove. Most studies in this review were small and at a high or unclear risk of bias. Based on the current evidence, decision makers may wish to base decisions about how to dress a wound following surgery on dressing costs as well as patient preference. PMID: 27996083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Improving oral health for older people in the home care setting: An exploratory implementation study.

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Improving oral health for older people in the home care setting: An exploratory implementation study. Australas J Ageing. 2016 Dec;35(4):273-280 Authors: Lewis A, Kitson A, Harvey G Abstract AIM: To explore how home care providers can support older people to maintain good oral health through implementing a model called Better Oral Health in Home Care (BOHHC). METHODS: A mixed method, pre- to post-implementation design was used. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework informed the model's implementation process. RESULTS: High levels of dental need were identified at pre-implementation. Older people self-reported significant oral health improvements following the introduction of tailored home care strategies by care workers, who in turn reported a better understanding and knowledge of the importance of oral care for older people. CONCLUSION: The BOHHC Model provided an evidence-based approach for community-based prevention and early detection of oral health problems. Improving oral health for older people in the home care setting has significant practice and policy implications which require ongoing intersectoral facilitation involving aged care, vocational health education and dental sectors. PMID: 27226074 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Active case finding strategy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with handheld spirometry.

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Active case finding strategy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with handheld spirometry. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Dec;95(50):e5683 Authors: Kim JK, Lee CM, Park JY, Kim JH, Park SH, Jang SH, Jung KS, Yoo KH, Park YB, Rhee CK, Kim DK, Hwang YI Abstract The early detection and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is critical to providing appropriate and timely treatment. We explored a new active case-finding strategy for COPD using handheld spirometry.We recruited subjects over 40 years of age with a smoking history of more than 10 pack-years who visited a primary clinic complaining of respiratory symptoms. A total of 190 of subjects were enrolled. Medical information was obtained from historical records and physical examination by general practitioners. All subjects had their pulmonary function evaluated using handheld spirometry with a COPD-6 device. Because forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6) has been suggested as an alternative to FVC, we measured forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/FEV6 for diagnosis of airflow limitation. All subjects were then referred to tertiary referral hospitals to complete a "Could it be COPD?" questionnaire, handheld spiromtery, and conventional spirometry. The results of each instrument were compared to evaluate the efficacy of both handheld spirometry and the questionnaire.COPD was newly diagnosed in 45 (23.7%) patients. According to our receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, sensitivity and specificity were maximal when the FEV1/FEV6 ratio was less than 77%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.759. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 72.7%, 77.1%, 50%, and 90%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve of respiratory symptoms listed on the questionnaire ranged from 0.5 to 0.65, which indicates that there is almost no difference compared with the results of handheld spirometry.The present study demonstrated the efficacy of handheld spirometry as an active case-finding tool for COPD in a primary clinical setting. This study suggested that physicians should recommend handheld spirometry for people over the age of 40, who have a smoking history of more than 10 pack-years, regardless of respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, people who have abnormal results, determined using the FEV1/FEV6 ≤0.77 cut-off, should be referred for further conventional spirometry to confirm the diagnosis of COPD. However, further studies within the general population are necessary to establish efficacy in the public. PMID: 27977619 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

THERAPY OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Improvement of cardiovascular risk factors after adrenalectomy in patients with adrenal tumors and subclinical Cushing’s syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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THERAPY OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Improvement of cardiovascular risk factors after adrenalectomy in patients with adrenal tumors and subclinical Cushing's syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2016 Dec;175(6):R283-R295 Authors: Bancos I, Alahdab F, Crowley RK, Chortis V, Delivanis DA, Erickson D, Natt N, Terzolo M, Arlt W, Young WF, Murad MH Abstract OBJECTIVE: Beneficial effects of adrenalectomy on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) are uncertain. We sought to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis with the following objectives: (i) determine the effect of adrenalectomy compared with conservative management on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SCS and (ii) compare the effect of adrenalectomy on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SCS vs those with a nonfunctioning (NF) adrenal tumor. METHODS: MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial were searched on 17 November 2015. Reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality in duplicate. RESULTS: We included 26 studies reporting on 584 patients with SCS and 457 patients with NF adrenal tumors. Studies used different definitions of SCS. Patients with SCS undergoing adrenalectomy demonstrated an overall improvement in cardiovascular risk factors (61% for hypertension, 52% for diabetes mellitus, 45% for obesity and 24% for dyslipidemia). When compared with conservative management, patients with SCS undergoing adrenalectomy experienced improvement in hypertension (RR 11, 95% CI: 4.3-27.8) and diabetes mellitus (RR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.5-9.9), but not dyslipidemia (RR 2.6, 95% CI: 0.97-7.2) or obesity (RR 3.4, 95% CI: 0.95-12). Patients with NF adrenal tumors experienced improvement in hypertension (21/54 patients); however, insufficient data exist for comparison to patients with SCS. CONCLUSIONS: Available low-to-moderate-quality evidence from heterogeneous studies suggests a beneficial effect of adrenalectomy on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SCS overall and compared with conservative management. PMID: 27450696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Investigation of 2 Types of Self-administered Acupressure for Persistent Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

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Investigation of 2 Types of Self-administered Acupressure for Persistent Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncol. 2016 Nov 01;2(11):1470-1476 Authors: Zick SM, Sen A, Wyatt GK, Murphy SL, Arnedt JT, Harris RE Abstract Importance: Fatigue is a common and debilitating late-term effect of breast cancer that is associated with poor sleep and decreased quality of life, yet therapies remain limited. Acupressure has reduced fatigue in previous small studies, but rigorous clinical trials are needed. Objectives: To investigate if 6 weeks of 2 types of self-administered acupressure improved fatigue, sleep, and quality of life vs usual care in breast cancer survivors and to determine if changes were sustained during a 4-week washout period. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3 randomized, single-blind, clinical trial conducted from March 1, 2011, through October 31, 2014. Women were recruited from the Michigan Tumor Registry. Interventions: Randomization (1:1:1) to 6 weeks of daily self-administered relaxing acupressure, stimulating acupressure, or usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in the Brief Fatigue Inventory score from baseline to weeks 6 and 10. Secondary analyses were sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and quality of life (Long-Term Quality of Life Instrument). Results: A total of 424 survivors of stages 0 to III breast cancer who had completed cancer treatments at least 12 months previously were screened, and 288 were randomized, with 270 receiving relaxing acupressure (n = 94), stimulating acupressure (n = 90), or usual care (n = 86). One woman withdrew owing to bruising at the acupoints. At week 6, the percentages of participants who achieved normal fatigue levels (Brief Fatigue Inventory score <4) were 66.2% (49 of 74) in relaxing acupressure, 60.9% (42 of 70) in stimulating acupressure, and 31.3% (26 of 84) in usual care. At week 10, a total of 56.3% (40 of 71) in relaxing acupressure, 60.9% (42 of 69) in stimulating acupressure, and 30.1% (25 of 83) in usual care continued to have normal fatigue. At neither time point were the 2 acupressure groups significantly different. Relaxing acupressure, but not stimulating acupressure, showed significant improvements in sleep quality compared with usual care at week 6, but not at week 10. Only relaxing acupressure significantly improved quality of life vs usual care at weeks 6 and 10. Conclusions and Relevance: Both acupressure arms significantly reduced persistent fatigue compared with usual care, but only relaxing acupressure had significant effects on sleep quality and quality of life. Relaxing acupressure offers a possible low-cost option for managing symptoms. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01281904. PMID: 27388752 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Increased mortality after lower extremity fractures in patients < 65 years of age.

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Increased mortality after lower extremity fractures in patients <65 years of age. Acta Orthop. 2016 Dec;87(6):622-625 Authors: Somersalo A, Paloneva J, Kautiainen H, LÖNnroos E, HEinÄNen M, Kiviranta I Abstract Background and purpose - The association between mortality and lower extremity fractures (other than hip fractures in older individuals) is unclear. We therefore investigated mortality in adults of all ages after lower extremity fractures that required inpatient care. Patients and methods - Diagnosis code (ICD10), procedure code (NOMESCO), and 7 additional characteristics of patients admitted to the trauma ward at Central Finland Hospital were collected between 2002 and 2008 (n = 3,567). Patients were followed up until the end of 2012. Mortality rates were calculated for patients with all types of lower extremity fractures using data from the population at risk. Results - During the study, 2,081 women and 1,486 men sustained a lower extremity fracture. By the end of follow-up (mean duration 5 years), 42% of the women and 32% of the men had died. For all lower extremity fractures, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.8-2.0) for women and 2.6 (CI: 2.4-2.9) for men. In patients aged ≥65 years, mortality was increased and of similar magnitude after fractures of the hip, femoral diaphysis, and knee (distal femur, patella, and proximal tibia). In patients aged <65 years, mortality was increased after fractures at all sites. The SMR after fractures at different sites ranged between 2.1 (CI: 1.4-3.2) (ankle) and 6.7 (CI: 5.0-9.0) (hip) in patients aged <65 years and between 0.6 (CI: 0.30-1.1) (leg) and 2.2 (CI: 2.0-2.3) (hip) in patients aged ≥65 years. Interpretation - The post-fracture SMR of patients aged <65 years was at least double that of older patients. Furthermore, the higher mortality observed after proximal fractures of the lower extremity was greater in younger patients. The reasons behind these findings remain unclear. PMID: 27615323 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Factors that can predict pain with walking, 12 months after total knee arthroplasty.

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Factors that can predict pain with walking, 12 months after total knee arthroplasty. Acta Orthop. 2016 Dec;87(6):600-606 Authors: Lindberg MF, Miaskowski C, RustøEn T, Rosseland LA, Cooper BA, Lerdal A Abstract Background and purpose - Functional limitations after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are common. In this longitudinal study, we wanted to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of pain-related interference with walking during the first year after TKA and to determine which demographic, clinical, symptom-related, and psychological characteristics were associated with being part of this subgroup. Patients and methods - Patients scheduled for primary TKA for osteoarthritis (n = 202) completed questionnaires that evaluated perception of pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and illness on the day before surgery. Clinical characteristics were obtained from the medical records. Interference of pain with walking was assessed preoperatively, on postoperative day 4, and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after TKA. Results - Using growth mixture modeling, 2 subgroups of patients were identified with distinct trajectories of pain-related interference with walking over time. Patients in the Continuous Improvement class (n = 157, 78%) had lower preoperative interference scores and reported a gradual decline in pain-related interference with walking over the first 12 months after TKA. Patients in the Recurrent Interference class (n = 45, 22%) reported a high degree of preoperative pain-related interference with walking, initial improvement during the first 3 months after TKA, and then a gradual increase-returning to preoperative levels at 12 months. Patients in the Recurrent Interference class had higher preoperative pain, fatigue, and depression scores, and poorer perception of illness than the Continuous Improvement class. Interpretation - 1 in 5 patients did not improve in pain-related interference with walking at 12 months after TKA. Future studies should test the efficacy of interventions designed to modify preoperative characteristics. PMID: 27658970 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Interventions to improve adherence to lipid-lowering medication.

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Interventions to improve adherence to lipid-lowering medication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 12 21;12:CD004371 Authors: van Driel ML, Morledge MD, Ulep R, Shaffer JP, Davies P, Deichmann R Abstract BACKGROUND: Lipid-lowering drugs are widely underused, despite strong evidence indicating they improve cardiovascular end points. Poor patient adherence to a medication regimen can affect the success of lipid-lowering treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions aimed at improving adherence to lipid-lowering drugs, focusing on measures of adherence and clinical outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to 3 February 2016, and clinical trials registers (ANZCTR and ClinicalTrials.gov) up to 27 July 2016. We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We evaluated randomised controlled trials of adherence-enhancing interventions for lipid-lowering medication in adults in an ambulatory setting with a variety of measurable outcomes, such as adherence to treatment and changes to serum lipid levels. Two teams of review authors independently selected the studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors extracted and assessed data, following criteria outlined by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADEPro. MAIN RESULTS: For this updated review, we added 24 new studies meeting the eligibility criteria to the 11 studies from prior updates. We have therefore included 35 studies, randomising 925,171 participants. Seven studies including 11,204 individuals compared adherence rates of those in an intensification of a patient care intervention (e.g. electronic reminders, pharmacist-led interventions, healthcare professional education of patients) versus usual care over the short term (six months or less), and were pooled in a meta-analysis. Participants in the intervention group had better adherence than those receiving usual care (odds ratio (OR) 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29 to 2.88; 7 studies; 11,204 participants; moderate-quality evidence). A separate analysis also showed improvements in long-term adherence rates (more than six months) using intensification of care (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.91 to 4.29; 3 studies; 663 participants; high-quality evidence). Analyses of the effect on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels also showed a positive effect of intensified interventions over both short- and long-term follow-up. Over the short term, total cholesterol decreased by a mean of 17.15 mg/dL (95% CI 1.17 to 33.14; 4 studies; 430 participants; low-quality evidence) and LDL-cholesterol decreased by a mean of 19.51 mg/dL (95% CI 8.51 to 30.51; 3 studies; 333 participants; moderate-quality evidence). Over the long term (more than six months) total cholesterol decreased by a mean of 17.57 mg/dL (95% CI 14.95 to 20.19; 2 studies; 127 participants; high-quality evidence). Included studies did not report usable data for health outcome indications, adverse effects or costs/resource use, so we could not pool these outcomes. We assessed each included study for bias using methods described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. In general, the risk of bias assessment revealed a low risk of selection bias, attrition bias, and reporting bias. There was unclear risk of bias relating to blinding for most studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence in our review demonstrates that intensification of patient care interventions improves short- and long-term medication adherence, as well as total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Healthcare systems which can implement team-based intensification of patient care interventions may be successful in improving patient adherence rates to lipid-lowering medicines. PMID: 28000212 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Exercise therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome.

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Exercise therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 12 20;12:CD003200 Authors: Larun L, Brurberg KG, Odgaard-Jensen J, Price JR Abstract BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterised by persistent, medically unexplained fatigue, as well as symptoms such as musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, headaches and impaired concentration and short-term memory. CFS presents as a common, debilitating and serious health problem. Treatment may include physical interventions, such as exercise therapy, which was last reviewed in 2004. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine the effects of exercise therapy (ET) for patients with CFS as compared with any other intervention or control.• Exercise therapy versus 'passive control' (e.g. treatment as usual, waiting-list control, relaxation, flexibility).• Exercise therapy versus other active treatment (e.g. cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), cognitive treatment, supportive therapy, pacing, pharmacological therapy such as antidepressants).• Exercise therapy in combination with other specified treatment strategies versus other specified treatment strategies (e.g. exercise combined with pharmacological treatment vs pharmacological treatment alone). SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and SPORTDiscus up to May 2014 using a comprehensive list of free-text terms for CFS and exercise. We located unpublished or ongoing trials through the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to May 2014). We screened reference lists of retrieved articles and contacted experts in the field for additional studies SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials involving adults with a primary diagnosis of CFS who were able to participate in exercise therapy. Studies had to compare exercise therapy with passive control, psychological therapies, adaptive pacing therapy or pharmacological therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessments and data extraction. We combined continuous measures of outcomes using mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs). We combined serious adverse reactions and drop-outs using risk ratios (RRs). We calculated an overall effect size with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We have included eight randomised controlled studies and have reported data from 1518 participants in this review. Three studies diagnosed individuals with CFS using the 1994 criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); five used the Oxford criteria. Exercise therapy lasted from 12 to 26 weeks. Seven studies used variations of aerobic exercise therapy such as walking, swimming, cycling or dancing provided at mixed levels in terms of intensity of the aerobic exercise from very low to quite rigorous, whilst one study used anaerobic exercise. Control groups consisted of passive control (eight studies; e.g. treatment as usual, relaxation, flexibility) or CBT (two studies), cognitive therapy (one study), supportive listening (one study), pacing (one study), pharmacological treatment (one study) and combination treatment (one study). Risk of bias varied across studies, but within each study, little variation was found in the risk of bias across our primary and secondary outcome measures.Investigators compared exercise therapy with 'passive' control in eight trials, which enrolled 971 participants. Seven studies consistently showed a reduction in fatigue following exercise therapy at end of treatment, even though the fatigue scales used different scoring systems: an 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 11 points (MD -6.06, 95% CI -6.95 to -5.17; one study, 148 participants; low-quality evidence); the same 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD -2.82, 95% CI -4.07 to -1.57; three studies, 540 participants; moderate-quality evidence); and a 14-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 42 points (MD -6.80, 95% CI -10.31 to -3.28; three studies, 152 participants; moderate-quality evidence). Serious adverse reactions were rare in both groups (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.14 to 6.97; one study, 319 participants; moderate-quality evidence), but sparse data made it impossible for review authors to draw conclusions. Study authors reported a positive effect of exercise therapy at end of treatment with respect to sleep (MD -1.49, 95% CI -2.95 to -0.02; two studies, 323 participants), physical functioning (MD 13.10, 95% CI 1.98 to 24.22; five studies, 725 participants) and self-perceived changes in overall health (RR 1.83, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.40; four studies, 489 participants). It was not possible for review authors to draw conclusions regarding the remaining outcomes.Investigators compared exercise therapy with CBT in two trials (351 participants). One trial (298 participants) reported little or no difference in fatigue at end of treatment between the two groups using an 11-item scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD 0.20, 95% CI -1.49 to 1.89). Both studies measured differences in fatigue at follow-up, but neither found differences between the two groups using an 11-item fatigue scale with a scoring system of 0 to 33 points (MD 0.30, 95% CI -1.45 to 2.05) and a nine-item Fatigue Severity Scale with a scoring system of 1 to 7 points (MD 0.40, 95% CI -0.34 to 1.14). Serious adverse reactions were rare in both groups (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.11 to 3.96). We observed little or no difference in physical functioning, depression, anxiety and sleep, and we were not able to draw any conclusions with regard to pain, self-perceived changes in overall health, use of health service resources and drop-out rate.With regard to other comparisons, one study (320 participants) suggested a general benefit of exercise over adaptive pacing, and another study (183 participants) a benefit of exercise over supportive listening. The available evidence was too sparse to draw conclusions about the effect of pharmaceutical interventions. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CFS may generally benefit and feel less fatigued following exercise therapy, and no evidence suggests that exercise therapy may worsen outcomes. A positive effect with respect to sleep, physical function and self-perceived general health has been observed, but no conclusions for the outcomes of pain, quality of life, anxiety, depression, drop-out rate and health service resources were possible. The effectiveness of exercise therapy seems greater than that of pacing but similar to that of CBT. Randomised trials with low risk of bias are needed to investigate the type, duration and intensity of the most beneficial exercise intervention. PMID: 27995604 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Primary-care management of patients with coarctation of the aorta.

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Primary-care management of patients with coarctation of the aorta. Cardiol Young. 2016 Dec;26(8):1537-1542 Authors: Boris JR Abstract Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital cardiac defect that results in a variable degree of obstruction to the left side of the heart. It can present with either acute shock in the neonatal period as a critical lesion or it can appear more insidiously with hypertension or other findings later in life. This article summarises aspects of outpatient care of patients with this lesion, including clinical history and physical examination, ancillary testing, and issues associated with long-term follow-up and management. Increasing knowledge and experience with this group of patients have allowed for a higher level of evidence-based care over the long term. PMID: 28148323 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

End-of-life care of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

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End-of-life care of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. BMC Palliat Care. 2016 Oct 12;15(1):85 Authors: Rajala K, Lehto JT, Saarinen M, Sutinen E, Saarto T, Myllärniemi M Abstract BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with median survival from 2 to 7 years. Palliative care is an important part of patients´ care as lung transplantation is not an option for the majority of patients. The aim of this study was to describe treatment practices, decision-making and symptoms during end-of-life care of IPF patients. METHODS: We identified 59 deceased patients from a national prospective IPF cohort study (FinnishIPF) and analyzed retrospectively their health care documentation during the 6 months that preceded death. RESULTS: Hospital was the place of death for 47 patients (80 %). A majority of the patients (93 %) were hospitalized for a mean of 30 days (range 1-96 days) during the last 6 months of their life. Altogether, patients spent 15 % of their last 6 months of life in a hospital. End-of-life decisions and do not resuscitate (DNR) orders were made for 19 (32 %) and 34 (57 %) of the patients, respectively, and 22 (42 %) of these decisions were made ≤ 3 days prior to death. During the final hospital stay, antibiotics were given to 79 % and non-invasive ventilation to 36 % of patients. During the last 24 h of life, radiologic imaging or laboratory tests were taken in 19 % and 53 % of the hospitalized patients, respectively. These tests and life prolonging therapies were more common in tertiary hospitals compared to other places of death. Dyspnea (66 %) and pain (31 %) were the most common symptoms recorded. Opioids were prescribed to 71 % of the patients during the last week before death. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of IPF patients died in a hospital with ongoing life-prolonging procedures until death. The frequent use of opioids is an indicator of an intention to relieve symptoms, but end-of-life decisions were still made very late. Early integrated palliative care with advance care plan could improve the end-of-life care of dying IPF patients. PMID: 27729035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Resilience as a concept for understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): an integrative review.

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Resilience as a concept for understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): an integrative review. Nurs Open. 2017 Apr;4(2):61-75 Authors: Rosa F, Bagnasco A, Aleo G, Kendall S, Sasso L Abstract AIMS: This paper was a report of the synthesis of evidence on examining the origins and definitions of the concept of resilience, investigating its application in chronic illness management and exploring its utility as a means of understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. BACKGROUND: Resilience is a concept that is becoming relevant to understanding how individuals and families live with illness, especially long-term conditions. Caregivers of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease must be able to respond to exacerbations of the condition and may themselves experience cognitive imbalances. Yet, resilience as a way of understanding family caregiving of adults with COPD is little explored. DESIGN: Literature review - integrative review. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar and EBSCO were searched between 1989-2015. REVIEW METHODS: The principles of rapid evidence assessment were followed. RESULTS: We identified 376 relevant papers: 20 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in family caregivers of chronic diseases patients but only 12 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in caregivers of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients and have been included in the synthesis. The term resilience in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease caregiving is most often understood using a deficit model of health. PMID: 28286662 [PubMed - in process]

Meanings of balance for people with long-term illnesses.

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Meanings of balance for people with long-term illnesses. Br J Community Nurs. 2016 Nov 02;21(11):563-567 Authors: Nilsson C, Lindberg B, Skär L, Söderberg S Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate meanings of balance in everyday life for people with long-term illnesses living at home. People living with long-term illnesses are in need of help and support to manage their daily lives. Twelve adults with extensive needs for help and support were interviewed. A phenomenological hermeneutic interpretation was used to analyse the interview texts. The findings show that balance in everyday life for people with long-term illnesses means striving for independence through care and support in their surroundings. It was also important to be able to choose how their lives would be and to be with others who listened and understood them for who they are. By building a relationship with patients at an early stage of their illnesses, nursing staff have an opportunity to understand what people who are living at home with long-term illnesses need in order to achieve balance in their everyday lives. PMID: 27809585 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The conduct and process of mental capacity assessments in home health care settings.

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The conduct and process of mental capacity assessments in home health care settings. Br J Community Nurs. 2016 Nov 02;21(11):570-577 Authors: Cliff C, McGraw C Abstract The assessment of capacity to consent to treatment is key to shared practitioner-patient decision-making. It is the responsibility of the person closest to the decision being made to carry out the assessment. The aim was to examine the factors that influence mental capacity assessments in home health care settings and identify the facilitators and inhibitors to the conduct and process of assessments as perceived and experienced by non-medical health practitioners providing generalist community services. Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of community nurses, community physiotherapists and community occupational therapists in one NHS Trust in London. Data were analysed thematically. The main themes were issues relating to: intrinsic patient factors and behaviours; recognising, managing and utilising the influence of the family; practitioner motivation and competence; working together as a team to optimise shared decision making, and; the importance of place. While some issues appear germane to both hospital and home health care settings, others are unique to - or manifest very differently in - home health care settings. The findings suggest that the influence of family members, long-term practitioner-patient relationships and physical distance from co-workers make the conduct and process of mental capacity assessments in home health care settings an inherently complex endeavour. PMID: 27809588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mental health and wellbeing: focus on men’s health.

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Mental health and wellbeing: focus on men's health. Br J Nurs. 2016 Nov 24;25(21):1163-1169 Authors: Patrick S, Robertson S Abstract All nurses have a responsibility to ensure that they actively promote both mental and physical health and wellbeing. This article aims to bring together current thinking and evidence about nursing and men's mental health promotion. Key areas of concern outlined are the high rate of suicide in men, the expression of depression in men and the problems of masculinity when related to seeking help for mental health. The article highlights the importance of language and the normalising of distressing feelings when working with men and suggests that nurses need to recognise how men can experience depression differently, actively identify and address suicidal thinking, and provide gender-sensitive interventions. Additionally, nurses working with men need to demonstrate 'male-positive' values and offer future-focused and action-oriented interventions (such as solution-focused, coaching or cognitive behavioural therapy approaches) that contribute to a sense of agency, promote hope and are more engaging for many men. PMID: 27882795 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An end-of-life care nurse service for people with COPD and heart failure: stakeholders’ experiences.

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An end-of-life care nurse service for people with COPD and heart failure: stakeholders' experiences. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2016 Nov 02;22(11):549-559 Authors: Johnston B, Coole C, Jay Narayanasamy M Abstract BACKGROUND: End-of-life care (EOLC) has historically been associated with cancer care. However, demographic changes indicate that future provision must also cater for other long term conditions (LTC). An EOLC-LTC service, delivered by palliative care nurses, is currently being piloted in one area in the East Midlands with patients with cardiac and respiratory disease. In order to inform future commissioning, it is important to gain the views and experiences of those involved with the service. AIMS: This study aimed to explore patients, and their partners, views and experiences of the EOLC-LTC service. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were used as part of a case study design, involving six cases. Each case consisted of the patient, their nominated family member/carer and key healthcare professionals involved in their care as identified by the patient. This paper reports on the findings from the interviews conducted with the six patients and their family member/carers. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: From the interviews, the following themes were identified: experiences managing a long term cardio-respiratory condition, the nurse service, building a close/therapeutic relationship and fragmentation and integration. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the EOLC-LTC service is welcomed and highly regarded by patients and their family members/carers. Further studies are required to explore the views and experiences of other key stakeholders and to evaluate how well the pilot operates within the wider care pathway. PMID: 27885910 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]