Diagnosis of viral hepatitis.

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Diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2017 May;12(3):302-314 Authors: Easterbrook PJ, Roberts T, Sands A, Peeling R Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics. RECENT FINDINGS: Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response include lack of quality-assured serological and low-cost virological in-vitro diagnostics, limited facilities for testing, inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches, stigmatization of those with or at risk of viral hepatitis and lack of guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. The new Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy sets out goals for elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030 and gives outcome targets for reductions in new infections and mortality, as well as service delivery targets that include testing, diagnosis and treatment. The 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents and children in low-income and middle-income countries outline the public health approach to strengthen and expand current testing practices for viral hepatitis and addresses who to test (testing approaches), which serological and virological assays to use (testing strategies) as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care. SUMMARY: Future directions and innovations in hepatitis testing include strategies to improve access such as through use of existing facility and community-based testing opportunities for hepatitis testing, near-patient or point-of-care assays for virological markers (nucleic acid testing and HCV core antigen), dried blood spot specimens used with different serological and nucleic acid test assays, multiplex and multi-disease platforms to enable testing for multiple analytes/pathogens and potential self-testing for viral hepatitis. PMID: 28306597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An individual-level meta-analysis assessing the impact of community-level sanitation access on child stunting, anemia, and diarrhea: Evidence from DHS and MICS surveys.

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An individual-level meta-analysis assessing the impact of community-level sanitation access on child stunting, anemia, and diarrhea: Evidence from DHS and MICS surveys. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jun;11(6):e0005591 Authors: Larsen DA, Grisham T, Slawsky E, Narine L Abstract BACKGROUND: A lack of access to sanitation is an important risk factor child health, facilitating fecal-oral transmission of pathogens including soil-transmitted helminthes and various causes of diarrheal disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of cross-sectional surveys to determine the impact that community-level sanitation access has on child health for children with and without household sanitation access. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 301 two-stage demographic health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys conducted between 1990 and 2015 we calculated the sanitation access in the community as the proportion of households in the sampled cluster that had household access to any type of sanitation facility. We then conducted exact matching of children based on various predictors of living in a community with high access to sanitation. Using logistic regression with the matched group as a random intercept we examined the association between the child health outcomes of stunted growth, any anemia, moderate or severe anemia, and diarrhea in the previous two weeks and the exposure of living in a community with varying degrees of community-level sanitation access. For children with household-level sanitation access, living in a community with 100% sanitation access was associated with lowered odds of stunting (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.97, 95%; confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.00; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children), any anemia (AOR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.67-0.78; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children), moderate or severe anemia (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.68-0.77; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children) and diarrhea (AOR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.91-0.97); n = 16,379 matched groups, 1,603,731 children) compared to living in a community with < 30% sanitation access. For children without household-level sanitation access, living in communities with 0% sanitation access was associated with higher odds of stunting (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02-1.06; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children), any anemia (AOR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00-1.09; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children), moderate or severe anemia (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.00-1.09; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children) but not diarrhea (AOR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.98-1.02; n = 16,379 matched groups, 1,603,731 children) compared to children without household-level sanitation access living in communities with 1-30% sanitation access. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Community-level sanitation access is associated with improved child health outcomes independent of household-level sanitation access. The proportion of children living in communities with 100% sanitation access throughout the world is appallingly low. Ensuring sanitation access to all by 2030 will greatly improve child health. PMID: 28594828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Integrating cervical cancer with HIV healthcare services: A systematic review.

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Integrating cervical cancer with HIV healthcare services: A systematic review. PLoS One. 2017;12(7):e0181156 Authors: Sigfrid L, Murphy G, Haldane V, Chuah FLH, Ong SE, Cervero-Liceras F, Watt N, Alvaro A, Otero-Garcia L, Balabanova D, Hogarth S, Maimaris W, Buse K, Mckee M, Piot P, Perel P, Legido-Quigley H Abstract BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem. Even though readily preventable, it is the fourth leading cause of death in women globally. Women living with HIV are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer, highlighting the need for access to screening and treatment for this population. Integration of services has been proposed as an effective way of improving access to cervical cancer screening especially in areas of high HIV prevalence as well as lower resourced settings. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of programs integrating cervical cancer and HIV services globally, including feasibility, acceptability, clinical outcomes and facilitators for service delivery. METHODS: This is part of a larger systematic review on integration of services for HIV and non-communicable diseases. To be considered for inclusion studies had to report on programs to integrate cervical cancer and HIV services at the level of service delivery. We searched multiple databases including Global Health, Medline and Embase from inception until December 2015. Articles were screened independently by two reviewers for inclusion and data were extracted and assessed for risk of bias. MAIN RESULTS: 11,057 records were identified initially. 7,616 articles were screened by title and abstract for inclusion. A total of 21 papers reporting interventions integrating cervical cancer care and HIV services met the criteria for inclusion. All but one study described integration of cervical cancer screening services into existing HIV services. Most programs also offered treatment of minor lesions, a 'screen-and-treat' approach, with some also offering treatment of larger lesions within the same visit. Three distinct models of integration were identified. One model described integration within the same clinic through training of existing staff. Another model described integration through co-location of services, with the third model describing programs of integration through complex coordination across the care pathway. The studies suggested that integration of cervical cancer services with HIV services using all models was feasible and acceptable to patients. However, several barriers were reported, including high loss to follow up for further treatment, limited human-resources, and logistical and chain management support. Using visual screening methods can facilitate screening and treatment of minor to larger lesions in a single 'screen-and-treat' visit. Complex integration in a single-visit was shown to reduce loss to follow up. The use of existing health infrastructure and funding together with comprehensive staff training and supervision, community engagement and digital technology were some of the many other facilitators for integration reported across models. CONCLUSIONS: This review shows that integration of cervical cancer screening and treatment with HIV services using different models of service delivery is feasible as well as acceptable to women living with HIV. However, the descriptive nature of most papers and lack of data on the effect on long-term outcomes for HIV or cervical cancer limits the inference on the effectiveness of the integrated programs. There is a need for strengthening of health systems across the care continuum and for high quality studies evaluating the effect of integration on HIV as well as on cervical cancer outcomes. PMID: 28732037 [PubMed - in process]

Exploring patient strategies in response to untoward healthcare encounters.

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Exploring patient strategies in response to untoward healthcare encounters. Nurs Ethics. 2017 Mar;24(2):190-197 Authors: Brüggemann AJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Increasing attention to patients' rights and their ability to choose their healthcare provider have changed the way patients can respond to untoward, disempowering and abusive healthcare encounters. These responses are often seen as crucial for quality improvement, yet they are little explored and conceptualized. OBJECTIVE: To explore patients' potential responses to untoward healthcare encounters and looking at their possible consequences for care quality improvement as well as for the individual patient. RESEARCH DESIGN: The article is structured looking at two primary strategies: patient exit (leaving a healthcare provider) and patient voice (expressing grievances), derived from Hirschman (1970). These strategies were explored by the use of theoretical and empirical literature and applied to an individual patient case. The case functions as a pedagogical tool to illustrate and problematize what exit and voice strategies can mean for a single patient. Ethical considerations: The patient case is my version of a generalized scenario that is described elsewhere. It does not represent an individual patient's story, but aims to be realistic and recognizable. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION: Based on the existing literature, it is hypothesized that, in their current form, exit and voice strategies have a limited effect on care quality and can come at a price for patients. However, both strategies may be of value to patients and providers. Therefore, the healthcare system could empower patients to engage in action and could further develop ways for providers to effectively use patients' responses to improve practice and find ways to prevent patients from untoward experiences in healthcare. PMID: 26174469 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Tackling sepsis using an identification pathway.

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Tackling sepsis using an identification pathway. Nurs Child Young People. 2017 Mar 06;29(2):19 Authors: M Chapman S Abstract Background The risk of death from sepsis is reduced if it is identified early and treated promptly. Treatment can be delayed through a failure to recognise its signs and symptoms. PMID: 28262065 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluation of the National Health Service (NHS) Direct Pilot Telehealth Program: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

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Evaluation of the National Health Service (NHS) Direct Pilot Telehealth Program: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Telemed J E Health. 2017 Jul 18;: Authors: Clarke M, Fursse J, Connolly N, Sharma U, Jones R Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a pilot telehealth program applied to a wide population of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Vital signs data were transmitted from the home of the patient on a daily basis using a patient monitoring system for review by community nurse to assist decisions on management. SETTING: Community services for patients diagnosed with COPD. PARTICIPANTS: Two Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) enrolled 321 patients diagnosed with COPD into the telehealth program. Two hundred twenty-seven (n = 227) patients having a complete baseline record of at least 88 days of continuous remote monitoring and meeting all inclusion criteria were included in the statistical analysis. INTERVENTION: Remote monitoring. METHODS: Resource and cost data associated with patient events (inpatient hospitalization, accident and emergency [A&E], and home visits) 12 months before, immediately before and during monitoring, equipment, start-up, and administration were collected and compared to determine cost-effectiveness of the program. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cost-effectiveness of program, impact on resource usage, and patterns of change in resource usage. RESULTS: Cost-effectiveness was determined for the two PCTs and the two periods before monitoring to provide four separate estimates. Cost-effectiveness had high variance both between the PCTs and between the comparison periods ranging from a saving of £140,800 ($176,000) to an increase of £9,600 ($12,000). The average saving was £1,023 ($1,280) per patient per year. The largest impact was on length of stay with a fall in the average length of inpatient care in PCT1 from 11.5 days in the period 12 months before monitoring to 6.5 days during monitoring, and similarly in PCT2 from 7.5 to 5.2 days. CONCLUSION: There was a wide discrepancy in the results from the two PCTs. This places doubt on outcomes and may indicate also why the literature on cost-effectiveness remains inconclusive. The wide variance on savings and the uncertainty of monitoring cost do not allow a definitive conclusion on the cost-effectiveness as an outcome of this study. It might well be that the average saving was £1,023 ($1,280) per patient per year, but the variance is too great to allow this to be statistically significant. Each locality-based clinical service provides a service to achieve the same clinical goal, but it does so in significantly different ways. The introduction of remote monitoring has a profound effect on team learning and clinical practice and thus distorts the cost-effectiveness evaluation of the use of the technology. Cost-effectiveness studies will continue to struggle to provide a definitive answer because outcome measurements are too dependent on factors other than the technology. PMID: 28723244 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Neighborhood-Level Factors Related to Asthma in Children Living in Urban Areas.

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Neighborhood-Level Factors Related to Asthma in Children Living in Urban Areas. J Sch Nurs. 2017 Feb;33(1):8-17 Authors: DePriest K, Butz A Abstract Asthma disproportionately affects children who are non-White and of low socioeconomic status. One innovative approach to address these health disparities is to investigate the child's neighborhood environment and factors influencing asthma symptoms. The purpose of this integrative review is to critique research investigating the relationships between neighborhood-level factors and asthma morbidity in urban children. Three literature databases were searched using the terms "asthma," "child," "neighborhood," and "urban." The articles included were organized into six themes within the larger domains of prevalence, physical, and social factors. Literature tables provide in-depth analysis of each article and demonstrate a need for strengthening analysis methods. The current research points to the necessity for a multilevel study to analyze neighborhood-level factors that are associated with increased asthma morbidity in urban children. School nurse clinicians, working within children's neighborhoods, are uniquely positioned to assess modifiable neighborhood-level determinants of health in caring for children with asthma. PMID: 27756873 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Density and Proximity of Licensed Tobacco Retailers and Adolescent Smoking.

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Density and Proximity of Licensed Tobacco Retailers and Adolescent Smoking. J Sch Nurs. 2017 Feb;33(1):18-29 Authors: Gwon SH, DeGuzman PB, Kulbok PA, Jeong S Abstract Adolescent smoking prevention is an important issue in health care. This literature review describes the theoretical concept of ecological model for adolescent smoking and tobacco retailers and summarizes previous studies on the association between the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and adolescent smoking. We reviewed nine studies on tobacco retailer density and proximity in relation to adolescent smoking, published in peer-reviewed journals between 2004 and 2014. The tobacco retailer density and proximity were correlated with adolescent lifetime smoking, past 12-month smoking, past 30-day smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. School nurses or other school health professionals may need to include the density and proximity of tobacco retailer factors around schools in school-based tobacco-use prevention programs. Health policy makers may need to consider zoning or licensing restrictions of tobacco retailers around schools for adolescent smoking prevention. PMID: 27864341 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A community virtual ward model to support older persons with complex health care and social care needs.

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A community virtual ward model to support older persons with complex health care and social care needs. Clin Interv Aging. 2017;12:985-993 Authors: Lewis C, Moore Z, Doyle F, Martin A, Patton D, Nugent LE Abstract BACKGROUND: Globally the older population is increasing rapidly. As a result there is an increase in frail older persons living within the community, with increased risks of a hospital admission and higher mortality and morbidity rates. Due to complexity of care, health care professionals face challenges in providing effective case management and avoiding unplanned admissions to hospital. A community virtual ward (CVW) model was developed to assist health care professionals to support older persons at home during periods of illness and/or functional decline. METHODS: A quantitative observational study was conducted to examine if a CVW model of care reduced unplanned hospital admissions and emergency department (ED) presentations in 54 patients over a 12-month period. The sign-rank test examined matched data on bed days, ED presentations, and unplanned hospital admissions pre- and post-CVW implementation. Other risk factors for admission to hospital were examined using the Mann-Whitney test pre-and post-CVW admission, including falls, living alone, and cognition. Correlations between hospital admission avoidances and unplanned hospital admissions and ED presentations were tested using Spearman's ρ test. RESULTS: There was a reduction in ED presentations post-CVW admission (P<0.001), and median unscheduled admissions were reduced (P=0.001). Those living alone had a lower number of ED presentations (median 0.5, interquartile range 0-1) prior to admission in comparison to those living with a caregiver, with no differences observed during admission to CVW. For those who experienced a fall during CVW admission, the odds ratio (OR) of requiring long-term care doubled for each extra fall (OR =2.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.52, P=0.025). Reduced cognition was associated with an increased risk of ED presentations (ρ=0.292, P<0.05) but not associated with increased risks of unplanned hospital admissions (ρ=0.09, P=0.546). There were no significant correlations seen between admission avoidance and the number of unplanned hospital admissions or ED presentations. CONCLUSION: Through an integrated approach to care, a CVW model in the care of older persons can reduce ED presentations and unplanned hospital admissions. PMID: 28721026 [PubMed - in process]

Medical Care for Undocumented Immigrants: National and International Issues.

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Medical Care for Undocumented Immigrants: National and International Issues. Prim Care. 2017 Mar;44(1):e1-e13 Authors: Beck TL, Le TK, Henry-Okafor Q, Shah MK Abstract The number of undocumented immigrants (UIs) varies worldwide, and most reside in the United States. With more than 12 million UIs in the United States, addressing the health care needs of this population presents unique challenges and opportunities. Most UIs are uninsured and rely on the safety-net health system for their care. Because of young age, this population is often considered to be healthier than the overall US population, but they have specific health conditions and risks. Adequate coverage is lacking; however, there are examples of how to better address the health care needs of UIs. PMID: 28164824 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The One Health approach to identify knowledge, attitudes and practices that affect community involvement in the control of Rift Valley fever outbreaks.

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The One Health approach to identify knowledge, attitudes and practices that affect community involvement in the control of Rift Valley fever outbreaks. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Feb;11(2):e0005383 Authors: Hassan OA, Affognon H, Rocklöv J, Mburu P, Sang R, Ahlm C, Evander M Abstract Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF. Although the 2007 RVF outbreak in Sudan had negatively affected the participants' food availability and livestock income, the participants did not fully understand how to identify RVF symptoms and risk factors for both humans and livestock. For example, the participants mistakenly believed that avoiding livestock that had suffered spontaneous abortions was the least important risk factor for RVF. Although the majority noticed an increase in mosquito population during the 2007 RVF outbreak, few used impregnated bed nets as preventive measures. The community was reluctant to notify the authorities about RVF suspicion in livestock, a sentinel for human RVF infection. Almost all the respondents stressed that they would not receive any compensation for their dead livestock if they notified the authorities. In addition, the participants believed that controlling RVF outbreaks was mainly the responsibility of human health authorities rather than veterinary authorities. The majority of the participants were aware that RVF could spread from one region to another within the country. Participants received most their information about RVF from social networks and the mass media, rather than the health system or veterinarians. Because the perceived role of the community in controlling RVF was fragmented, the probability of RVF spread increased. PMID: 28207905 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

DOT or SAT for Rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis? A non-randomized comparison in a high HIV-prevalence setting.

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DOT or SAT for Rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis? A non-randomized comparison in a high HIV-prevalence setting. PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0178054 Authors: Mohr E, Daniels J, Beko B, Isaakidis P, Cox V, Steele SJ, Muller O, Snyman L, De Azevedo V, Shroufi A, Trivino Duran L, Hughes J Abstract BACKGROUND: Daily directly-observed therapy (DOT) is recommended for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients throughout treatment. We assessed the impact of self-administered treatment (SAT) in a South African township with high rates of RR-TB and HIV. METHODS: Community-supported SAT for patients who completed the intensive phase was piloted in five primary care clinics in Khayelitsha. We compared final treatment outcomes among RR-TB patients initiating treatment before (standard-of-care (SOC)-cohort, January 2010-July 2013) and after the implementation of the pilot (SAT-cohort, January 2012-December 2014). All patients with outcomes before January 1, 2017 were considered in the analysis of outcomes. RESULTS: One-hundred-eighteen patients in the SOC-cohort and 174 patients in the SAT-cohort had final RR-TB treatment outcomes; 70% and 73% were HIV-co-infected, respectively. The proportion of patients with a final outcome of loss to follow-up (LTFU) did not differ whether treated in the SOC (25/118, 21.2%) or SAT-cohort (31/174, 17.8%) (P = 0.47). There were no significant differences in the time to 24-month LTFU among HIV-infected and uninfected patients (HR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.51-1.6, P = 0.71), or among patients enrolled in the SOC-cohort versus the SAT-cohort (HR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.49-1.4, P = 0.50) who received at least 6-months of RR-TB treatment. CONCLUSION: The introduction of SAT during the continuation phase of RR-TB treatment does not adversely affect final RR-TB treatment outcomes in a high TB and HIV-burden setting. This differentiated, patient-centred model of care could be considered in RR-TB programmes to decrease the burden of DOT on patients and health facilities. PMID: 28542441 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Racial and Geographic Differences in Breastfeeding – United States, 2011-2015.

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Racial and Geographic Differences in Breastfeeding - United States, 2011-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jul 14;66(27):723-727 Authors: Anstey EH, Chen J, Elam-Evans LD, Perrine CG Abstract Breastfeeding provides numerous health benefits for infants and mothers alike. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for approximately the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding with complementary foods through at least the first year (1). National estimates indicate substantial differences between non-Hispanic black (black) and non-Hispanic white (white) infants across breastfeeding indicators in the United States (2). CDC analyzed 2011-2015 National Immunization Survey (NIS) data for children born during 2010-2013 to describe breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity through 6 months and duration at 12 months among black and white infants. Among the 34 states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) with sufficient sample size (≥50 per group), initiation rates were significantly (p<0.05) lower among black infants than white infants in 23 states; in 14 of these states (primarily in the South and Midwest), the difference was at least 15 percentage points. A significant difference of at least 10 percentage points was identified in exclusive breastfeeding through 6 months in 12 states and in breastfeeding at 12 months in 22 states. Despite overall increases in breastfeeding rates for black and white infants over the last decade, racial disparities persist. Interventions specifically addressing barriers to breastfeeding for black women are needed. PMID: 28704352 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Severe Mental Illness and Acute Stress: A Study of Service Utilization in a Conflict Zone.

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Severe Mental Illness and Acute Stress: A Study of Service Utilization in a Conflict Zone. Psychiatr Q. 2017 Mar;88(1):213-220 Authors: Halperin D, Levy T, Avissar S, Schreiber G Abstract Patients suffering from severe mental illness (SMI) are considered especially vulnerable to stress. In this study, their use of acute stress services in a military context affecting civilian populations was assessed, using naturally occurring data. The proportion of patients with a previously known SMI, defined as any chronic psychotic disorder or bipolar disorder, among all civilians examined at a center for treatment of stress during a military conflict versus at the ER in usual times, was compared, using the Chi square statistical test. Among 354 subjects examined at the center for treatment of stress, 12 had a SMI diagnosis. Among 404 subjects examined at the ER in usual times, 16 had a SMI diagnosis. Patients with SMI were under-represented, but not in a statistically significant manner, at the center for treatment of stress (χ(2) = 0.31, p = ns). Although these results may imply that patients with SMI are not more vulnerable to external stress than the general population, we believe that they may have difficulties in seeking immediate help in such traumatogenic contexts. In order to reduce the occurrence of PTSD and gain efficacy in the treatment of the primary disorder, psychiatric services should perhaps make a reaching out effort to identify and examine these patients in the community. . PMID: 27334286 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Black carbon emission reduction strategies in healthcare industry for effective global climate change management.

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Black carbon emission reduction strategies in healthcare industry for effective global climate change management. Waste Manag Res. 2017 Apr;35(4):416-425 Authors: Raila EM, Anderson DO Abstract Climate change remains one of the biggest threats to life on earth to date with black carbon (BC) emissions or smoke being the strongest cause after carbon dioxide (CO2). Surprisingly, scientific evidence about black carbon emissions reduction in healthcare settings is sparse. This paper presents new research findings on the reduction of black carbon emissions from an observational study conducted at the UN Peacekeeping Operations (MINUSTAH) in Haiti in 2014. Researchers observed 20 incineration cycles, 30 minutes for each cycle of plastic and cardboard sharps healthcare waste (HCW) containers ranged from 3 to 14.6 kg. The primary aim was to determine if black carbon emissions from healthcare waste incineration can be lowered by mainstreaming the use of cardboard sharps healthcare waste containers instead of plastic sharps healthcare waste containers. Similarly, the study looks into whether burning temperature was associated with the smoke levels for each case or not. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated significantly lower black carbon emissions during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers (6.81 ± 4.79% smoke) than in plastic containers (17.77 ± 8.38% smoke); a statistically significant increase of 10.96% smoke (95% Confidence Interval ( CI) [4.4 to 17.5% smoke], p = 0.003). Correspondingly, lower bottom burner temperatures occurred during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers than in plastic (95% Cl [16 to 126°C], p = 0.014). Finally, we expect the application of the new quantitative evidence to form the basis for policy formulation, mainstream the use of cardboard sharps containers and opt for non-incineration disposal technologies as urgent steps for going green in healthcare waste management. PMID: 27909212 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Smoking cessation interventions for patients with coronary heart disease and comorbidities: an observational cross-sectional study in primary care.

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Smoking cessation interventions for patients with coronary heart disease and comorbidities: an observational cross-sectional study in primary care. Br J Gen Pract. 2017 Feb;67(655):e118-e129 Authors: Blane DN, Mackay D, Guthrie B, Mercer SW Abstract BACKGROUND: Little is known about how smoking cessation practices in primary care differ for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who have different comorbidities. AIM: To determine the association between different patterns of comorbidity and smoking rates and smoking cessation interventions in primary care for patients with CHD. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of 81 456 adults with CHD in primary care in Scotland. METHOD: Details of eight concordant physical comorbidities, 23 discordant physical comorbidities, and eight mental health comorbidities were extracted from electronic health records between April 2006 and March 2007. Multilevel binary logistic regression models were constructed to determine the association between these patterns of comorbidity and smoking status, smoking cessation advice, and smoking cessation medication (nicotine replacement therapy) prescribed. RESULTS: The most deprived quintile had nearly three times higher odds of being current smokers than the least deprived (odds ratio [OR] 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.49 to 3.05). People with CHD and two or more mental health comorbidities had more than twice the odds of being current smokers than those with no mental health conditions (OR 2.11; 95% CI = 1.99 to 2.24). Despite this, those with two or more mental health comorbidities (OR 0.77; 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.98) were less likely to receive smoking cessation advice, but absolute differences were small. CONCLUSION: Patterns of comorbidity are associated with variation in smoking status and the delivery of smoking cessation advice among people with CHD in primary care. Those from the most deprived areas and those with mental health problems are considerably more likely to be current smokers and require additional smoking cessation support. PMID: 27919936 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Primary care screening for peripheral arterial disease: a cross-sectional observational study.

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Primary care screening for peripheral arterial disease: a cross-sectional observational study. Br J Gen Pract. 2017 Feb;67(655):e103-e110 Authors: Davies JH, Richards J, Conway K, Kenkre JE, Lewis JE, Mark Williams E Abstract BACKGROUND: Early identification of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and subsequent instigation of risk modification strategies could minimise disease progression and reduce overall risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. However, the feasibility and value of primary care PAD screening is uncertain. AIM: This study (the PIPETTE study - Peripheral arterial disease In Primary carE: Targeted screening and subsequenT managEment) aimed to determine the value of a proposed primary care PAD screening strategy. Outcomes assessed were: prevalence of PAD and agreement of ankle- brachial index (ABI)-defined PAD (ABI ≤0.9) with QRISK(®)2-defined high CV risk (≥20). DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken in a large general practice in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales. METHOD: In total, 1101 individuals with ≥2 pre-identified CV risk factors but no known CV disease or diabetes were invited to participate. Participants underwent ABI measurement and QRISK2 assessment, and completed Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 368 people participated in the study (participation rate: 33%). Prevalence of PAD was 3% (n = 12). The number needed to screen (NNS) to detect one new case of PAD was 31. Refining the study population to those aged ≥50 years with a smoking history reduced the NNS to 14, while still identifying 100% of PAD cases. Of participants with PAD, 33% reported severe lifestyle-limiting symptoms of intermittent claudication that warranted subsequent endovascular intervention, yet had not previously presented to their GP. The QRISK2 score predicted high CV risk in 92% of participants with PAD. CONCLUSION: The low PAD yield and the fact that QRISK2 was largely comparable to the ABI in predicting high CV risk suggests that routine PAD screening may be unwarranted. Instead, strategies to improve public awareness of PAD are needed. PMID: 28126882 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Predicting Ebola Severity: A Clinical Prioritization Score for Ebola Virus Disease.

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Predicting Ebola Severity: A Clinical Prioritization Score for Ebola Virus Disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Feb;11(2):e0005265 Authors: Hartley MA, Young A, Tran AM, Okoni-Williams HH, Suma M, Mancuso B, Al-Dikhari A, Faouzi M Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite the notoriety of Ebola virus disease (EVD) as one of the world's most deadly infections, EVD has a wide range of outcomes, where asymptomatic infection may be almost as common as fatality. With increasingly sensitive EVD diagnosis, there is a need for more accurate prognostic tools that objectively stratify clinical severity to better allocate limited resources and identify those most in need of intensive treatment. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This retrospective cohort study analyses the clinical characteristics of 158 EVD(+) patients at the GOAL-Mathaska Ebola Treatment Centre, Sierra Leone. The prognostic potential of each characteristic was assessed and incorporated into a statistically weighted disease score. The mortality rate among EVD(+) patients was 60.8% and highest in those aged <5 or >25 years (p<0.05). Death was significantly associated with malaria co-infection (OR = 2.5, p = 0.01). However, this observation was abrogated after adjustment to Ebola viral load (p = 0.1), potentially indicating a pathologic synergy between the infections. Similarly, referral-time interacted with viral load, and adjustment revealed referral-time as a significant determinant of mortality, thus quantifying the benefits of early reporting as a 12% mortality risk reduction per day (p = 0.012). Disorientation was the strongest unadjusted predictor of death (OR = 13.1, p = 0.014) followed by hiccups, diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, dyspnoea and myalgia. Including these characteristics in multivariate prognostic scores, we obtained a 91% and 97% ability to discriminate death at or after triage respectively (area under ROC curve). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study proposes highly predictive and easy-to-use prognostic tools, which stratify the risk of EVD mortality at or after EVD triage. PMID: 28151955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Clinical Recognition of Melanoma in Dermatologists and Nondermatologists.

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Clinical Recognition of Melanoma in Dermatologists and Nondermatologists. J Cutan Med Surg. 2016 Nov;20(6):532-535 Authors: Martinka MJ, Crawford RI, Humphrey S Abstract BACKGROUND: The incidence of melanoma is increasing annually in Canada. OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was designed to assess the ability of physicians of different specialties to accurately recognize melanoma. METHODS: Pathology reports of biopsies submitted to Vancouver Coastal Health with clinical diagnoses of melanoma were reviewed (January to July 2013). The clinical diagnoses made by dermatologists, general practitioners and family physicians, and all other specialists were correlated with the final histopathologic diagnoses. RESULTS: The dermatologists, general practitioners and family physicians, and all other specialists achieved diagnostic accuracies of 24.75%, 3.52%, and 12.75%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the diagnostic accuracy of dermatologists was significantly better than that the other practitioners, the majority of patients with suspicious skin lesions present to family physicians or general practitioners first. Thus, there is considerable value in providing more training and education to nondermatologists, because it can have a meaningful impact on patient care. PMID: 26676952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Predictors of HIV-related risk perception and PrEP acceptability among young adult female family planning patients.

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Predictors of HIV-related risk perception and PrEP acceptability among young adult female family planning patients. AIDS Care. 2017 Jun;29(6):751-758 Authors: Garfinkel DB, Alexander KA, McDonald-Mosley R, Willie TC, Decker MR Abstract HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) presents new opportunities for HIV prevention. While women comprise approximately 20% of new HIV infections in the US, significant questions remain about how to most effectively facilitate PrEP uptake for this population. Family planning clinics are a dominant source of health care for young women and support an estimated 4.5 million women annually. We explore characteristics associated with HIV risk perception and PrEP acceptability among young adult women seeking reproductive health services in a high-prevalence setting. A cross-sectional, clinic-based survey was conducted with women ages 18-35 (n = 146) seeking health care at two family planning clinics in the greater Baltimore, Maryland area, from January to April 2014. An estimated 22% of women reported being worried about HIV risk, and 60% reported they would consider taking a pill daily to prevent HIV. In adjusted models, HIV-related worry was associated with having no college education, being single or dating more than one person, practicing consistent condom use during vaginal sex, and having ever traded sex. PrEP acceptability was significantly associated with being Black (71% vs. 49%, AOR 2.23, CI: 1.89-2.64) and having ever traded sex (83% vs. 58%, AOR 4.94, CI: 2.00-12.22). For women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV), PrEP acceptability was significantly lower (57% vs. 62%, AOR .71, CI: .59-.85) relative to their non-abused counterparts. Results suggest that family planning clinics may be a natural setting for PrEP discussion and roll-out. They should be considered in the context of integrating HIV prevention with reproductive health services. Women with a trauma history may need additional support for implementing HIV prevention in the form of PrEP. PMID: 27680304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Reductions in Medication-Related Hospitalizations in Older Adults with Medication Management by Hospital and Community Pharmacists: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

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Reductions in Medication-Related Hospitalizations in Older Adults with Medication Management by Hospital and Community Pharmacists: A Quasi-Experimental Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017 Jan;65(1):212-219 Authors: Pellegrin KL, Krenk L, Oakes SJ, Ciarleglio A, Lynn J, McInnis T, Bairos AW, Gomez L, McCrary MB, Hanlon AL, Miyamura J Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between a system of medication management services provided by specially trained hospital and community pharmacists (Pharm2Pharm) and rates and costs of medication-related hospitalization in older adults. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental interrupted time series design comparing intervention and nonintervention hospitals using a mixed-effects analysis that modeled the intervention as a time-dependent variable. SETTING: Sequential implementation of Pharm2Pharm at six general nonfederal acute care hospitals in Hawaii with more than 50 beds in 2013 and 2014. All five other such hospitals served as a contemporaneous comparison group. PARTICIPANTS: Adult inpatients who met criteria for being at risk for medication problems (N = 2,083), 62% of whom were aged 65 or older. INTERVENTION: A state-wide system of medication management services provided by specially trained hospital and community pharmacists serving high-risk individuals from hospitalization through transition to home and for up to 1 year after discharge. MEASUREMENTS: Medication-related hospitalization rate per 1,000 admissions of individuals aged 65 and older, adjusted for case mix; estimate of costs of hospitalizations and actual costs of pharmacist services. RESULTS: The predicted, case mix-adjusted medication-related hospitalization rate of individuals aged 65 and older was 36.5% lower in the Pharm2Pharm hospitals after implementation than in the nonintervention hospitals (P = .01). The estimated annualized cost of avoided admissions was $6.6 million. The annual cost of the pharmacist services for all Pharm2Pharm participants was $1.8 million. CONCLUSION: The Pharm2Pharm model was associated with an estimated 36% reduction in the medication-related hospitalization rate for older adults and a 2.6:1 return on investment, highlighting the value of pharmacists as drug therapy experts in geriatric care. PMID: 27714762 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Advancing Symptom Science Through Symptom Cluster Research: Expert Panel Proceedings and Recommendations.

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Advancing Symptom Science Through Symptom Cluster Research: Expert Panel Proceedings and Recommendations. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017 Apr;109(4): Authors: Miaskowski C, Barsevick A, Berger A, Casagrande R, Grady PA, Jacobsen P, Kutner J, Patrick D, Zimmerman L, Xiao C, Matocha M, Marden S Abstract An overview of proceedings, findings, and recommendations from the workshop on "Advancing Symptom Science Through Symptom Cluster Research" sponsored by the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) and the Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, is presented. This workshop engaged an expert panel in an evidenced-based discussion regarding the state of the science of symptom clusters in chronic conditions including cancer and other rare diseases. An interdisciplinary working group from the extramural research community representing nursing, medicine, oncology, psychology, and bioinformatics was convened at the National Institutes of Health. Based on expertise, members were divided into teams to address key areas: defining characteristics of symptom clusters, priority symptom clusters and underlying mechanisms, measurement issues, targeted interventions, and new analytic strategies. For each area, the evidence was synthesized, limitations and gaps identified, and recommendations for future research delineated. The majority of findings in each area were from studies of oncology patients. However, increasing evidence suggests that symptom clusters occur in patients with other chronic conditions (eg, pulmonary, cardiac, and end-stage renal disease). Nonetheless, symptom cluster research is extremely limited and scientists are just beginning to understand how to investigate symptom clusters by developing frameworks and new methods and approaches. With a focus on personalized care, an understanding of individual susceptibility to symptoms and whether a "driving" symptom exists that triggers other symptoms in the cluster is needed. Also, research aimed at identifying the mechanisms that underlie symptom clusters is essential to developing targeted interventions. PMID: 28119347 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Using Registered Dental Hygienists to Promote a School-Based Approach to Dental Public Health.

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Using Registered Dental Hygienists to Promote a School-Based Approach to Dental Public Health. Am J Public Health. 2017 May;107(S1):S56-S60 Authors: Simmer-Beck M, Wellever A, Kelly P Abstract We examine a strategy for improving oral health in the United States by focusing on low-income children in school-based settings. Vulnerable children often experience cultural, social, economic, structural, and geographic barriers when trying to access dental services in traditional dental office settings. These disparities have been discussed for more than a decade in multiple US Department of Health and Human Services publications. One solution is to revise dental practice acts to allow registered dental hygienists increased scope of services, expanded public health delivery opportunities, and decreased dentist supervision. We provide examples of how federally qualified health centers have implemented successful school-based dental models within the parameters of two state policies that allow registered dental hygienists varying levels of dentist supervision. Changes to dental practice acts at the state level allowing registered dental hygienists to practice with limited supervision in community settings, such as schools, may provide vulnerable populations greater access to screening and preventive services. We derive our recommendations from expert opinion. PMID: 28661808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Unanswered clinical questions: a survey of specialists and primary care providers.

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Unanswered clinical questions: a survey of specialists and primary care providers. J Med Libr Assoc. 2017 Jan;105(1):4-11 Authors: Brassil E, Gunn B, Shenoy AM, Blanchard R Abstract OBJECTIVE: With the myriad of cases presented to clinicians every day at our integrated academic health system, clinical questions are bound to arise. Clinicians need to recognize these knowledge gaps and act on them. However, for many reasons, clinicians might not seek answers to these questions. Our goal was to investigate the rationale and process behind these unanswered clinical questions. Subsequently, we explored the use of biomedical information resources among specialists and primary care providers and identified ways to promote more informed clinical decision making. METHODS: We conducted a survey to assess how practitioners identify and respond to information gaps, their background knowledge of search tools and strategies, and their usage of and comfort level with technology. RESULTS: Most of the 292 respondents encountered clinical questions at least a few times per week. While the vast majority often or always pursued answers, time was the biggest barrier for not following through on questions. Most respondents did not have any formal training in searching databases, were unaware of many digital resources, and indicated a need for resources and services that could be provided at the point of care. CONCLUSIONS: While the reasons for unanswered clinical questions varied, thoughtful review of the responses suggested that a combination of educational strategies, embedded librarian services, and technology applications could help providers pursue answers to their clinical questions, enhance patient safety, and contribute to patient-based, self-directed learning. PMID: 28096740 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Utility of Surveillance Research to Inform Physical Activity Policy: An Exemplar From Canada.

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Utility of Surveillance Research to Inform Physical Activity Policy: An Exemplar From Canada. J Phys Act Health. 2017 Mar;14(3):229-239 Authors: Craig CL, Cameron CA, Bauman A Abstract BACKGROUND: There are several well-known risk factor monitoring systems, but few examples of comprehensive surveillance systems designed specifically to inform physical activity (PA) policy. This paper examines the utility of Canada`s Physical Activity and Sport Monitoring System in guiding policy and practice. METHODS: Indicators were determined in conjunction with government, nongovernmental associations and academics. Serial measures were collected from representative population (telephone interviews, n = 4000 to 11,000) and setting-based (postal surveys, n = 1425 to 4304) surveys. RESULTS: Adult PA was higher in 2014 (47%) than 1998 (37%). The prevalence of knowledge about sufficient PA to meet national guidelines increased (31% to 57%). Most adults (66%) reported having many safe places to walk locally. Having policies to encourage walking and cycling when redeveloping communities increased by community size (5% to 37%). PA promotion was available in 10% to 15% of workplaces. Most parents (64%) provided transportation to support their child's PA. The prevalence of policies mandating daily PE increased 2001 to 2011 (36% to 55%), as did having no policy to hire qualified PE teachers (25% to 34%). CONCLUSIONS: Canada's surveillance system has provided information for guiding policy planning, resource allocation, setting and tracking national goals, assessing changes in PA determinants, and evaluating national campaigns, naturally occurring experiments, and innovative policies. PMID: 27918686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Relevance of a subjective quality of life questionnaire for long-term homeless persons with schizophrenia.

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Relevance of a subjective quality of life questionnaire for long-term homeless persons with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Feb 17;17(1):72 Authors: Girard V, Tinland A, Bonin JP, Olive F, Poule J, Lancon C, Apostolidis T, Rowe M, Greacen T, Simeoni MC Abstract BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of programs are addressing the specific needs of homeless people with schizophrenia in terms of access to housing, healthcare, basic human rights and other domains. Although quality of life scales are being used to evaluate such programs, few instruments have been validated for people with schizophrenia and none for people with schizophrenia who experience major social problems such as homelessness. The aim of the present study was to validate the French version of the S-QoL a self-administered, subjective quality of life questionnaire specific to schizophrenia for people with schizophrenia who are homeless. METHODS: In a two-step process, the S-QoL was first administered to two independent convenience samples of long-term homeless people with schizophrenia in Marseille, France. The objective of the first step was to analyse the psychometric properties of the S-QoL. The objective of the second step was to examine, through qualitative interviews with members of the population in question, the relevance and acceptability of the principle quality of life indicators used in the S-QoL instrument. RESULTS: Although the psychometric characteristics of the S-QoL were found to be globally satisfactory, from the point of view of the people being interviewed, acceptability was poor. Respondents frequently interrupted participation complaining that questionnaire items did not take into account the specific context of life on the streets. CONCLUSIONS: Less intrusive questions, more readily understandable vocabulary and greater relevance to subjects' living conditions are needed to improve the S-QoL questionnaire for this population. A modular questionnaire with context specific sections or specific quality of life instruments for socially excluded populations may well be the way forward. PMID: 28212630 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A glossary of terms for understanding political aspects in the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP).

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A glossary of terms for understanding political aspects in the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP). J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Jul 05;: Authors: Oneka G, Vahid Shahidi F, Muntaner C, Bayoumi AM, Mahabir DF, Freiler A, O'Campo P, Shankardass K Abstract Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a strategy that seeks to integrate health considerations into the development, implementation and evaluation of policies across various non-health sectors of the government. Over the past 15 years, there has been an increase in the uptake of HiAP by local, regional and national governments. Despite the growing popularity of this approach, most existing literature on HiAP implementation remains descriptive rather than explanatory in its orientation. Moreover, prior research has focused on the more technical aspects of the implementation process. Thus, studies that aim to 'build capacity to promote, implement and evaluate HiAP' abound. Conversely, there is little emphasis on the political aspects of HiAP implementation. Neglecting the role of politics in shaping the use of HiAP is problematic, since health and the strategies by which it is promoted are partially political.This glossary addresses the politics gap in the existing literature by drawing on theoretical concepts from political, policy, and public health sciences to articulate a framework for studying how political mechanisms influence HiAP implementation. To this end, the glossary forms part of an on-going multiple explanatory case study of HiAP implementation, HARMONICS (HiAP Analysis using Realist Methods on International Case Studies, harmonics-hiap.ca), and is meant to expand on a previously published glossary addressing the topic of HiAP implementation more broadly. Collectively, these glossaries offer a conceptual toolkit for understanding how politics explains implementation outcomes of HiAP. PMID: 28679539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Tools for Health Education Among Diabetic Patients.

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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Tools for Health Education Among Diabetic Patients. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2017;238:250-252 Authors: Ismaile S, Alhosban F, Almoajel A, Albarrak A, Househ M Abstract Health education is an integral part of self-management programs and an important element for the control and effective management of any chronic disease including diabetes. Patient Knowledge, Awareness, and Practices (KAP) are considered to be the most important factors for assessing the results of health education in patients with diabetes. In order to develop such health education models, it is important to have a validated and reliable tools which asses a diabetic patient's knowledge, attitude and practice. The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature on KAP assessment tools regarding health education among diabetic patients. The researchers conducted a systematic literature review using MEDLINE database from 1980 up to 2016. A developed search strategy was conducted by the researchers for MEDLINE and EBESCO. Of the 94 articles identified only 16 articles fully met the inclusion criteria. This review identifies useful assessment tools of KAP regarding health education for diabetic patients which will help to improve strategies in regards to assessing KAP for diabetic patients worldwide. The KAP assessment tools should be: carefully developed, user friendly, evidence-based, valid and reliable. PMID: 28679936 [PubMed - in process]

A genome-wide investigation into parent-of-origin effects in autism spectrum disorder identifies previously associated genes including SHANK3.

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A genome-wide investigation into parent-of-origin effects in autism spectrum disorder identifies previously associated genes including SHANK3. Eur J Hum Genet. 2017 Feb;25(2):234-239 Authors: Connolly S, Anney R, Gallagher L, Heron EA Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is known to be a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder affecting more than 1% of the population but in the majority of ASD cases, the genetic cause has not been identified. Parent-of-origin effects have been highlighted as an important mechanism in the pathology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome, with individuals with these syndromes often exhibiting ASD symptoms. Consequently, systematic investigation of these effects in ASD is clearly an important line of investigation in elucidating the underlying genetic mechanisms. Using estimation of maternal, imprinting and interaction effects using multinomial modelling (EMIM), we simultaneously investigated imprinting, maternal genetic effects and associations in the Autism Genome Project and Simons Simplex Consortium genome-wide association data sets. To avoid using the overly stringent genome-wide association study significance level, we used a Bayesian threshold that takes into account the sample size, allele frequency and any available prior knowledge. Between the two data sets, we identified a total of 18 imprinting effects and 68 maternal genetic effects that met this Bayesian threshold criteria, but none met the threshold in both data sets. We identified imprinting and maternal genetic effects for regions that have previously shown evidence for parent-of-origin effects in ASD. Together with these findings, we have identified maternal genetic effects not previously identified in ASD at a locus in SHANK3 on chromosome 22 and a locus in WBSCR17 on chromosome 7 (associated with Williams syndrome). Both genes have previously been associated with ASD. PMID: 27876814 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

‘IRDiRC Recognized Resources': a new mechanism to support scientists to conduct efficient, high-quality research for rare diseases.

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'IRDiRC Recognized Resources': a new mechanism to support scientists to conduct efficient, high-quality research for rare diseases. Eur J Hum Genet. 2017 Feb;25(2):162-165 Authors: Lochmüller H, Le Cam Y, Jonker AH, Lau LP, Baynam G, Kaufmann P, Lasko P, Dawkins HJ, Austin CP, Boycott KM Abstract The International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) has created a quality label, 'IRDiRC Recognized Resources', formerly known as 'IRDiRC Recommended'. It is a peer-reviewed quality indicator process established based on the IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines to designate resources (ie, standards, guidelines, tools, and platforms) designed to accelerate the pace of discoveries and translation into clinical applications for the rare disease (RD) research community. In its first year of implementation, 13 resources successfully applied for this designation, each focused on key areas essential to IRDiRC objectives and to the field of RD research more broadly. These included data sharing for discovery, knowledge organisation and ontologies, networking patient registries, and therapeutic development. 'IRDiRC Recognized Resources' is a mechanism aimed to provide community-approved contributions to RD research higher visibility, and encourage researchers to adopt recognised standards, guidelines, tools, and platforms that facilitate research advances guided by the principles of interoperability and sharing. PMID: 27782107 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Vitamin D metabolite concentrations in umbilical cord blood serum and associations with clinical characteristics in a large prospective mother-infant cohort in Ireland.

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Vitamin D metabolite concentrations in umbilical cord blood serum and associations with clinical characteristics in a large prospective mother-infant cohort in Ireland. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Mar;167:162-168 Authors: Kiely M, O'Donovan SM, Kenny LC, Hourihane JO, Irvine AD, Murray DM Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is widespread among mothers and neonates and quality clinical and analytical data are lacking. We used a CDC-accredited LC-MS/MS method to analyze vitamin D metabolites in cord sera from 1050 maternal-infant dyads in the prospective SCOPE Ireland Pregnancy and BASELINE Birth cohort studies, based in Cork, Ireland. The mean±SD total 25(OH)D was 34.9±18.1nmol/L; 35% of cords (50% during winter) had 25(OH)D <25nmol/L, 46% were <30nmol/L and 80% were <50nmol/L. In this predominantly white cohort, the main predictor of cord 25(OH)D [adj. mean difference in nmol/L (95% CI)] was summer delivery [19.2 (17.4, 20.9), P<0.0001]. Maternal smoking during pregnancy (9% prevalence) was negatively associated (P<0.002) with cord 25(OH)D [-4.83 (-7.9, -1.5) nmol/L]. There were no associations between cord 25(OH)D and birth weight or any anthropometric measures at birth. Despite the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency at birth, there were no documented musculoskeletal complications during infancy, which was likely due to widespread supplementation with vitamin D. The mean±SD concentration of 3-epi-25(OH)D3, detectable in 99.4% of cord samples, was 3.3±1.9nmol/L. The proportion of 25(OH)D as 3-epi-25(OH)D3 was 11.2%. Cord 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations were positively predicted by cord 25(OH)D3 [0.101 (0.099, 0.103) nmol/L, P<0.0001] and negatively by gestational age [-0.104 (-0.131, -0.076) nmol/L, P<0.0001] and maternal age [-0.010 (-0.019, -0.001) nmol/L, P<0.05]. 25(OH)D2 was detected in 98% of cord sera (mean±SD; 2.2±1.9nmol/L) despite low antenatal consumption of vitamin D2 supplements. In conclusion, these first CDC-accredited data of vitamin D metabolites in umbilical cord blood emphasise the high risk of very low vitamin D status in infants born to un-supplemented mothers. Experimental data to define maternal vitamin D requirements for prevention of neonatal deficiency at high latitude are required. PMID: 28007533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Regional differences in mortality, hospital discharges and primary care contacts for cardiovascular disease.

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Regional differences in mortality, hospital discharges and primary care contacts for cardiovascular disease. Scand J Public Health. 2017 May;45(3):260-268 Authors: Haraldsdottir S, Gudmundsson S, Thorgeirsson G, Lund SH, Valdimarsdottir UA Abstract AIMS: Surveillance of geographical variations in cardiovascular health is important in order to achieve the objectives of reducing regional health disparities. We aimed to explore differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and prevalence of CVD diagnoses made in primary and in-patient care, as well as risk factor distribution by geographic regions (urban/rural) in Iceland. METHODS: From nationwide health registers, we obtained data on CVD mortalities ( N = 7113), primary healthcare CVD contacts ( N = 58,246) and hospital CVD discharges ( N = 14,039), as well as data on CVD risk factors from a national health survey ( N = 5909; response rate 60.3%). Age-standardised annual mortality, primary healthcare contact and hospital discharge rates due to CVD were calculated per 100,000 population inside (urban) and outside (rural) the Capital Area (CA). Logistic regression was used to explore regional differences in CVD risk factors. RESULTS: We observed slightly higher total CVD mortality rates among women outside compared to inside the CA (Standardised Rate Ratio (SRR) 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.07)), particularly due to atrial fibrillation (SRR 1.47 (95% CI 1.46-1.48)), heart failure (SRR 1.29 (95% CI 1.27-1.31)) and ischemic heart disease (SRR 1.11 (95% CI 1.10-1.12)), while reduced mortality risk for cerebrovascular disease (SRR 0.81 (95% CI 0.80-0.83)). The rates of hospital discharges and primary care contacts for these diseases, as well as prevalence of several modifiable risk factors, were generally higher outside the CA, particularly among women. CONCLUSIONS: The higher prevalence of modifiable risk factors and CVD in rural areas, especially among women, calls for refined treatment and health-promoting efforts in rural areas. PMID: 28078921 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of active tuberculosis in Taiwanese adults: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of active tuberculosis in Taiwanese adults: a nationwide population-based cohort study. Addiction. 2017 Jul 01;: Authors: Yen YF, Hu HY, Lee YL, Ku PW, Chuang PH, Lai YJ, Chu D Abstract AIMS: To investigate the impact of alcohol exposure on tuberculosis (TB) development in Taiwanese adults. DESIGN: Participants from the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Alcohol consumption and other covariates were collected by in-person interviews at baseline. Incident cases of active TB were identified from the National Health Insurance database. A multivariable Cox regression model was used to estimate the association between alcohol consumption and active TB, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, and other covariates. SETTING: Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 46 196 adult participants aged >18 years from three rounds (2001, 2005, 2009) of the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol consumption was classified into never, social, regular, or heavy alcohol use. Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as intoxication at least once/week. FINDINGS: Of the 46 196 study subjects, 61.8%, 24.2%, 13.5%, and 0.5% were classified as never, social, regular, and heavy alcohol users, respectively. During the 398 443 person-years of follow-up, 279 (0.60%) subjects developed new-onset active TB. After adjusting for the subject demographics and comorbidities, heavy (hazard ratio [HR], 5.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51-11.09) and regular alcohol users (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.32-2.45) had increased risks of incident TB compared to never users. Moreover, a positive trend between increasing levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of active TB was noted (P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In Taiwan, heavy and regular alcohol consumption are associated with higher risks of active tuberculosis. PMID: 28667825 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Spatial clustering of childhood leukaemia with the integration of the Paediatric Environmental History.

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Spatial clustering of childhood leukaemia with the integration of the Paediatric Environmental History. Environ Res. 2017 Jul;156:605-612 Authors: Cárceles-Álvarez A, Ortega-García JA, López-Hernández FA, Orozco-Llamas M, Espinosa-López B, Tobarra-Sánchez E, Alvarez L Abstract BACKGROUND: Leukaemia remains the most common type of paediatric cancer and its aetiology remains unknown, but considered to be multifactorial. It is suggested that the initiation in utero by relevant exposures and/or inherited genetic variants and, other promotional postnatal exposures are probably required to develop leukaemia. This study aimed to map the incidence and analyse possible clusters in the geographical distribution of childhood acute leukaemia during the critical periods and to evaluate the factors that may be involved in the aetiology by conducting community and individual risk assessments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed all incident cases of acute childhood leukaemia (<15 years) diagnosed in a Spanish region during the period 1998-2013. At diagnosis, the addresses during pregnancy, early childhood and diagnosis were collected and codified to analyse the spatial distribution of acute leukaemia. Scan statistical test methodology was used for the identification of high-incidence spatial clusters. Once identified, individual and community risk assessments were conducted using the Paediatric Environmental History. RESULTS: A total of 158 cases of acute leukaemia were analysed. The crude rate for the period was 42.7 cases per million children. Among subtypes, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia had the highest incidence (31.9 per million children). A spatial cluster of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was detected using the pregnancy address (p<0.05). The most common environmental risk factors related with the aetiology of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, identified by the Paediatric Environmental History were: prenatal exposure to tobacco (75%) and alcohol (50%); residential and community exposure to pesticides (62.5%); prenatal or neonatal ionizing radiation (42.8%); and parental workplace exposure (37.5%) CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that environmental exposures in utero may be important in the development of childhood leukaemia. Due to the presence of high-incidence clusters using pregnancy address, it is necessary to introduce this address into the childhood cancer registers. The Paediatric Environmental History which includes pregnancy address and a careful and comprehensive evaluation of the environmental exposures will allow us to build the knowledge of the causes of childhood leukaemia. PMID: 28454012 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation.

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Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 03 31;3:CD001007 Authors: Stead LF, Carroll AJ, Lancaster T Abstract BACKGROUND: Group therapy offers individuals the opportunity to learn behavioural techniques for smoking cessation, and to provide each other with mutual support. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of group-delivered behavioural interventions in achieving long-term smoking cessation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, using the terms 'behavior therapy', 'cognitive therapy', 'psychotherapy' or 'group therapy', in May 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized trials that compared group therapy with self-help, individual counselling, another intervention or no intervention (including usual care or a waiting-list control). We also considered trials that compared more than one group programme. We included those trials with a minimum of two group meetings, and follow-up of smoking status at least six months after the start of the programme. We excluded trials in which group therapy was provided to both active therapy and placebo arms of trials of pharmacotherapies, unless they had a factorial design. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors extracted data in duplicate on the participants, the interventions provided to the groups and the controls, including programme length, intensity and main components, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in participants smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically-validated rates where available. We analysed participants lost to follow-up as continuing smokers. We expressed effects as a risk ratio for cessation. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (Mantel-Haenszel) model. We assessed the quality of evidence within each study and comparison, using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE criteria. MAIN RESULTS: Sixty-six trials met our inclusion criteria for one or more of the comparisons in the review. Thirteen trials compared a group programme with a self-help programme; there was an increase in cessation with the use of a group programme (N = 4395, risk ratio (RR) 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52 to 2.33, I(2) = 0%). We judged the GRADE quality of evidence to be moderate, downgraded due to there being few studies at low risk of bias. Fourteen trials compared a group programme with brief support from a health care provider. There was a small increase in cessation (N = 7286, RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.43, I(2) = 59%). We judged the GRADE quality of evidence to be low, downgraded due to inconsistency in addition to risk of bias. There was also low quality evidence of benefit of a group programme compared to no-intervention controls, (9 trials, N = 1098, RR 2.60, 95% CI 1.80 to 3.76 I(2) = 55%). We did not detect evidence that group therapy was more effective than a similar intensity of individual counselling (6 trials, N = 980, RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.28, I(2) = 9%). Programmes which included components for increasing cognitive and behavioural skills were not shown to be more effective than same-length or shorter programmes without these components. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Group therapy is better for helping people stop smoking than self-help, and other less intensive interventions. There is not enough evidence to evaluate whether groups are more effective, or cost-effective, than intensive individual counselling. There is not enough evidence to support the use of particular psychological components in a programme beyond the support and skills training normally included. PMID: 28361497 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The combination of bed sharing and maternal smoking leads to a greatly increased risk of sudden unexpected death in infancy: the New Zealand SUDI Nationwide Case Control Study.

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The combination of bed sharing and maternal smoking leads to a greatly increased risk of sudden unexpected death in infancy: the New Zealand SUDI Nationwide Case Control Study.

N Z Med J. 2017 Jun 02;130(1456):52-64

Authors: Mitchell EA, Thompson JM, Zuccollo J, MacFarlane M, Taylor B, Elder D, Stewart AW, Percival T, Baker N, McDonald GK, Lawton B, Schlaud M, Fleming P

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Despite a major reduction in overall infant mortality, sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) continues to be of concern in New Zealand, as the rate is high by international standards, and is even higher in indigenous Māori.

AIM: To identify modifiable risk factors for SUDI.

METHODS: A three-year (1 March 2012-28 February 2015) nationwide case-control study was conducted in New Zealand.

RESULTS: There were 137 SUDI cases, giving a SUDI mortality rate of 0.76/1,000 live births. The rate for Māori was 1.41/1,000, Pacific 1.01/1,000 and non-Māori non-Pacific (predominantly European) 0.50/1,000. The parent(s) of 97% of the SUDI cases were interviewed. Six hundred and forty-nine controls were selected and 258 (40%) were interviewed. The two major risk factors for SUDI were: maternal smoking in pregnancy (adjusted OR=6.01, 95% CI=2.97, 12.15) and bed sharing (aOR=4.96, 95% CI=2.55, 9.64). There was a significant interaction (p=0.002) between bed sharing and antenatal maternal smoking. Infants exposed to both risk factors had a markedly increased risk of SUDI (aOR=32.8, 95% CI=11.2, 95.8) compared with infants not exposed to either risk factor. Infants not sharing the parental bedroom were also at increased risk of SUDI (aOR=2.77, 95% CI=1.45, 5.30). Just 21 cases over the three-year study were not exposed to smoking in pregnancy, bed sharing or front or side sleeping position.

CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that many of the risk factors that were identified in the original New Zealand Cot Death Study (1987-1989) are still relevant today. The combination of maternal smoking in pregnancy and bed sharing is extremely hazardous for infants. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the SUDI prevention messages are still applicable today and should be reinforced. SUDI mortality could be reduced to just seven p.a. in New Zealand (approximately one in 10,000 live births).

PMID: 28571049 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

“Ebola kills generations”: Qualitative discussions with Liberian healthcare providers.

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"Ebola kills generations": Qualitative discussions with Liberian healthcare providers. Midwifery. 2017 Feb;45:44-49 Authors: Bell SA, Munro-Kramer ML, Eisenberg MC, Williams G, Amarah P, Lori JR Abstract OBJECTIVE: the purpose of this study was to explore healthcare providers' perceptions and reactions to the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic. DESIGN: a descriptive, qualitative study design was employed. Focus groups were conducted with Liberian healthcare providers who participated in care of patients with EVD. SETTING: the study was conducted in Bong County, Liberia (population: 333,000), which was severely affected, with over 650 reported cases and close to 200 deaths by the end of 2015. PARTICIPANTS: the total sample of 58 participants, included 11 nurses, ten traditional birth attendants (TBAs), four midwives, 28 general community health volunteers, three physician assistants, one community member and one pharmacy dispenser. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: five core themes related to changes in healthcare practices and interactions since the EVD outbreak were identified based on the results of the focus groups; fear, stigma, resource constraints, lack of knowledge and training, and shifting cultural practices. KEY CONCLUSIONS: this work represents a preliminary understanding of Liberian healthcare workers reactions to the EVD epidemic, and highlights the significant issues they faced as they attempted to care for patients and protect themselves. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: while the EVD epidemic has been declared over, preparedness activities for future disease outbreaks must continue. This study can inform future healthcare policy initiatives as well as preparedness activities targeted towards healthcare workers in low resource settings. PMID: 27998827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Intensive Care Admissions for Children With Enterovirus and Human Parechovirus Infections in the United Kingdom and The Republic of Ireland, 2010-2014.

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Intensive Care Admissions for Children With Enterovirus and Human Parechovirus Infections in the United Kingdom and The Republic of Ireland, 2010-2014. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Mar;36(3):339-342 Authors: Braccio S, Kapetanstrataki M, Sharland M, Ladhani SN Abstract Enteroviruses and human parechoviruses usually cause mild, self-limiting illnesses in children but can occasionally cause severe disease. During 2010-2014, 104 children in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland were admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit with severe enterovirus and human parechovirus infection; 40% had neurologic symptoms, 20% respiratory failure, 16% cardiac complications and 11% septic shock. Annual number of cases and incidence increased in the 5-year period, from 0.6/1000 pediatric intensive care unit admissions (12 cases) in 2010 to 1.8/1000 (36 cases) in 2014. Most cases (n = 86, 83%) were younger than 1 year; 77% (n = 80) required invasive ventilation, 40% (n = 42) inotropic support, 4% (n = 4) renal dialysis and 3% (n = 3) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Eight children (8%) died, including 4 with cardiac complications. PMID: 27977558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Use of metabotyping for optimal nutrition.

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Use of metabotyping for optimal nutrition. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2017 Apr;44:35-38 Authors: Brennan L Abstract In recent years there has been general agreement that dietary advice needs to be tailored to the individual and that we need to move from a one size fits all approach. Evidence has emerged that personalising dietary advice results in improved dietary behaviours. Concomitant with this there has been an increase in the application of developing technologies such as metabolomics to nutrition studies. The concept of the metabotype has emerged and set to play a key role in the development and delivery or personalised nutrition. The term metabotype refers to a group of individuals with similar metabolic profiles. This review gives an overview of the potential role of this approach in delivering optimal nutrition advice. PMID: 27835796 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

EMS Systems in Lower-Middle Income Countries: A Literature Review.

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EMS Systems in Lower-Middle Income Countries: A Literature Review. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017 Feb;32(1):64-70 Authors: Suryanto, Plummer V, Boyle M Abstract Introduction Prehospital care is one of the many issues that require addressing by lower-middle income countries (LMICs) where approximately 90% of global injuries occur. This may arise from more traffic in LMICs, poor road conditions, lack of public awareness of the importance of road safety, and the lack of ability to provide first aid to the victims. However, prehospital care in LMICs remains underdeveloped. Problem There is insufficient evidence regarding the development of prehospital care among LMICs. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the status of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in these countries. METHODS: A review of medical-related electronic databases was designed to identify the development of EMS systems in LMICs. A search of the literature was undertaken using three electronic databases, CINAHL, Ovid Medline, and EMBASE via Ovid, from their commencement date until the end of July 2015. The grey literature was searched using Google Scholar. Articles were included if they reported on the establishment and current status of an EMS system and were excluded if they were letters to the editor, articles focusing on disaster management, a combination of more than one country if the other country was not a LMIC, written in a language other than English or Bahasa Indonesia, and/or focusing only on in-hospital care. RESULTS: There were 337 articles identified in CINAHL, 731 in Ovid Medline, 891 in EMBASE via Ovid, and 41 in Google Scholar. Based on the title and abstract, 31 articles from CINAHL, 40 from Ovid Medline, 43 from EMBASE, and 11 from Google Scholar were retrieved for further review. There were 92 articles that met the inclusion criteria with 35 articles removed, as they were duplicated, leaving 57 articles to be reviewed. From those 48 countries categorized as LMICs, there were 16 (33.3%) countries that had information about an EMS system, including injury types, patient demographic, prehospital transport, and the obstacles in implementing the prehospital care system. CONCLUSION: The implementation and development of an EMS system is varied among LMICs. Many LMICs lack an organized EMS system with most ambulances used purely for transport and not as an emergency care vehicle. Financial issues are the most common problems faced by LMICs with support from developed countries a necessity. Suryanto , Plummer V , Boyle M . EMS systems in lower-middle income countries: a literature review. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(1):64-70. PMID: 27938449 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Got bacteria? The astounding, yet not-so-surprising, microbiome of human milk.

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Got bacteria? The astounding, yet not-so-surprising, microbiome of human milk. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2017 Apr;44:63-68 Authors: McGuire MK, McGuire MA Abstract Contrary to long-held dogma, human milk is not sterile. Instead, it provides infants a rich source of diverse bacteria, particularly microbes belonging to the Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas genera. Very little is known about factors that influence variation in the milk microbiome among women and populations, although time postpartum, delivery mode, and maternal factors such as diet and antibiotic use might be important. The origins of the bacteria in milk are thought to include the maternal gastrointestinal tract (via an entero-mammary pathway) and through bacterial exposure of the breast during nursing. Currently, almost nothing is known about whether variation in microbe consumption by the infant via human milk and that of the mammary gland, itself, impacts short-term and/or long-term infant and maternal health although several studies suggest this is likely. We urge the clinical and public health communities to be patient, however, in order to allow human milk and lactation researchers to first understand what constitutes 'normal' in terms of the milk microbiome (as well as factors that impact microbial community structure) prior to jumping the gun to investigate if and how this important source of microbes impacts maternal and infant health. PMID: 27940404 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Unemployment as a chronic stressor: A systematic review of cortisol studies.

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Unemployment as a chronic stressor: A systematic review of cortisol studies. Psychol Health. 2017 Mar;32(3):289-311 Authors: Sumner RC, Gallagher S Abstract OBJECTIVE: Unemployment is a type of chronic stressor that impacts human health. The reasons for how the stress of unemployment affect health is still a matter of discussion. One of the pathways from chronic stress to ill health is mediated by cortisol, and so we set out to compile extant data on how its secretion is affected by unemployment. DESIGN: A systematic literature search was conducted to establish the cortisol dysregulatory effects of this stressor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Only studies that specifically examined the effects of unemployment on cortisol excretion, and were written in English were included. RESULTS: Ten reports were obtained and synthesised to determine the severity and complexity of the effect of unemployment on cortisol secretion. The resulting combined evidence is mixed in terms of degree or dynamic of relationship. CONCLUSIONS: The differences between the cumulate findings of the studies can be understood in the context of the lack of both standardised methodology and an absence of consensus on unemployment definition. We propose existing methodologies may be strengthened by acknowledging and accounting for the individual characteristics that may be relevant to the stress experience of unemployment. PMID: 27766906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Association of Drug and Alcohol Use With Adolescent Firearm Homicide at Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Levels.

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Association of Drug and Alcohol Use With Adolescent Firearm Homicide at Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Levels. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Mar 01;177(3):317-324 Authors: Hohl BC, Wiley S, Wiebe DJ, Culyba AJ, Drake R, Branas CC Abstract Importance: Homicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States and the leading cause of death for adolescents who are African American. Large cities have disproportionate homicide rates. Objective: To determine the relationships between exposures to drugs and alcohol at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels and adolescent firearm homicide and to inform new approaches to preventing firearm violence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based case-control study from January 2010 to December 2012 of all 13- to 20-year-olds who were homicide victims in Philadelphia during the study period matched to randomly selected 13- to 20-year-old controls from the general population. Exposures: Individual drug and alcohol use at the time of injury, history of drug and alcohol use, caregiver drug and alcohol use, and neighborhood availability of alcohol and illegal drugs. We also controlled for age, race, school suspensions, arrests, and neighborhood ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures: Adolescent firearm homicide identified from police and medical examiner's reports. Results: We enrolled 161 adolescent homicide cases, including 157 (97.5%) firearm homicide cases and 172 matched controls, including 166 (96.5%) firearm homicide controls. Adolescents with a history of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.1; 95% CI, 1.2-14.0) or drug use (AOR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7-11.6) had increased odds of firearm homicide. Adolescents whose caregiver had a history of drug use had increased odds of firearm homicide (AOR, 11.7; 95% CI, 2.8-48.0). Adolescents in neighborhoods with high densities of alcohol outlets (AOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.1) and moderate or high drug availability had increased odds of firearm homicide (AOR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1-10.3 vs AOR, 7.5; 95% CI, 2.2-25.8). Conclusions and Relevance: Almost all adolescent homicides in Philadelphia between 2010 and 2012 were committed with a firearm. Substance use at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels was associated with increased odds of adolescent firearm homicide; drug use was associated at all 3 levels and alcohol at the individual and neighborhood levels. Expanding violence prevention efforts to target drug and alcohol use at multiple levels may help to reduce the firearm violence that disproportionately affects adolescents in minority populations in large US cities. PMID: 28055064 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Interest of single hair analysis to document drug exposure: literature review and a case report involving zuclopenthixol.

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Interest of single hair analysis to document drug exposure: literature review and a case report involving zuclopenthixol. Curr Pharm Des. 2017 Jun 22;: Authors: Allibe N, Kintz P, Faure A, Paysant F, Michard-Lenoir AP, Stanke-Labesque F, Scolan V, Eysseric-Guerin H Abstract The analysis of hair to detect drugs and drugs of abuse is performed in various contexts, including child protection cases, abstinence control programs, and workplace drug testing. This alternative matrix offers several advantages, such as a large detection window (months) and non-invasive collection. Segmental analysis of multiple hair strands for drugs and metabolites has been widely reported in the literature over the past three decades, whereas a review of the literature showed that there are only 26 articles that report the analysis of a single hair. They focus on two approaches: mass spectrometry imaging techniques, which improve the resolution of dating an intoxication or conventional methods, such as gas chromatography mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Improved sensitivity of LC-MS/MS techniques allows the evaluation of drug content in segments of a single hair. However, the units used to express the results vary, and depend on the authors. Following a review of the literature, we present a case that illustrates drug analyses both in a strand of hair and a single hair. In this case of exposure of a child to zuclopenthixol (ZPT), the analysis of ZPT in a single segmented hair by LC-MS/MS strengthened the presumption of a single administration. PMID: 28641534 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Prevalence of arthritis according to age, sex and socioeconomic status in six low and middle income countries: analysis of data from the World Health Organization study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1.

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Prevalence of arthritis according to age, sex and socioeconomic status in six low and middle income countries: analysis of data from the World Health Organization study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017 Jun 21;18(1):271 Authors: Brennan-Olsen SL, Cook S, Leech MT, Bowe SJ, Kowal P, Naidoo N, Ackerman IN, Page RS, Hosking SM, Pasco JA, Mohebbi M Abstract BACKGROUND: In higher income countries, social disadvantage is associated with higher arthritis prevalence; however, less is known about arthritis prevalence or determinants in low to middle income countries (LMICs). We assessed arthritis prevalence by age and sex, and marital status and occupation, as two key parameters of socioeconomic position (SEP), using data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). METHODS: SAGE Wave 1 (2007-10) includes nationally-representative samples of older adults (≥50 yrs), plus smaller samples of adults aged 18-49 yrs., from China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa (n = 44,747). Arthritis was defined by self-reported healthcare professional diagnosis, and a symptom-based algorithm. Marital status and education were self-reported. Arthritis prevalence data were extracted for each country by 10-year age strata, sex and SEP. Country-specific survey weightings were applied and weighted prevalences calculated. RESULTS: Self-reported (lifetime) diagnosed arthritis was reported by 5003 women and 2664 men (19.9% and 14.1%, respectively), whilst 1220 women and 594 men had current symptom-based arthritis (4.8% and 3.1%, respectively). For men, standardised arthritis rates were approximately two- to three-fold greater than for women. The highest rates were observed in Russia: 38% (95% CI 36%-39%) for men, and 17% (95% CI 14%-20%) for women. For both sexes and in all LMICs, arthritis was more prevalent among those with least education, and in separated/divorced/widowed women. CONCLUSIONS: High arthritis prevalence in LMICs is concerning and may worsen poverty by impacting the ability to work and fulfil community roles. These findings have implications for national efforts to prioritise arthritis prevention and management, and improve healthcare access in LMICs. PMID: 28633661 [PubMed - in process]

Red squirrels in the British Isles are infected with leprosy bacilli.

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Red squirrels in the British Isles are infected with leprosy bacilli. Science. 2016 11 11;354(6313):744-747 Authors: Avanzi C, Del-Pozo J, Benjak A, Stevenson K, Simpson VR, Busso P, McLuckie J, Loiseau C, Lawton C, Schoening J, Shaw DJ, Piton J, Vera-Cabrera L, Velarde-Felix JS, McDermott F, Gordon SV, Cole ST, Meredith AL Abstract Leprosy, caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae or the recently discovered Mycobacterium lepromatosis, was once endemic in humans in the British Isles. Red squirrels in Great Britain (Sciurus vulgaris) have increasingly been observed with leprosy-like lesions on the head and limbs. Using genomics, histopathology, and serology, we found M. lepromatosis in squirrels from England, Ireland, and Scotland, and M. leprae in squirrels from Brownsea Island, England. Infection was detected in overtly diseased and seemingly healthy animals. Phylogenetic comparisons of British and Irish M. lepromatosis with two Mexican strains from humans show that they diverged from a common ancestor around 27,000 years ago, whereas the M. leprae strain is closest to one that circulated in Medieval England. Red squirrels are thus a reservoir for leprosy in the British Isles. PMID: 27846605 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antiviral Activity, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of Bictegravir as 10-Day Monotherapy in HIV-1-Infected Adults.

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Antiviral Activity, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of Bictegravir as 10-Day Monotherapy in HIV-1-Infected Adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 May 01;75(1):61-66 Authors: Gallant JE, Thompson M, DeJesus E, Voskuhl GW, Wei X, Zhang H, White K, Cheng A, Quirk E, Martin H Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antiviral activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics of short-term monotherapy with bictegravir (BIC), a novel, potent HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI). DESIGN: Phase 1b, randomized, double-blinded, adaptive, sequential cohort, placebo-controlled study. METHODS: HIV-infected adults not taking antiretroviral therapy were randomized to receive BIC (5, 25, 50, or 100 mg) or placebo once daily for 10 days. Primary endpoint was time-weighted average change from baseline to day 11 (DAVG11) for plasma HIV-1 RNA. HIV-1 RNA, adverse events (AEs), and laboratory assessments were evaluated through day 17. RESULTS: Twenty participants were enrolled (n = 4/group). Mean DAVG11 ranged from -0.92 to -1.61 across BIC doses versus -0.01 for placebo. Significant reductions in plasma HIV-1 RNA from baseline at day 11 were observed for all BIC doses compared with placebo (P < 0.001); mean decreases were 1.45-2.43 log10 copies/mL. Increased BIC exposures correlated with increased reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA from baseline on day 11. Three participants on BIC (50 or 100 mg) achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL by end of study. Median Tmax ranged from 1.0 to 1.8 hours (day 1, postdose) and 1.3-2.7 hours (day 10), with median t1/2 ranging from 15.9 to 20.9 hours. No participant developed primary INSTI-R substitution through day 17. BIC was well tolerated, with no discontinuations because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: BIC is a novel, potent, unboosted INSTI that demonstrated rapid, dose-dependent declines in HIV-1 RNA after 10 days of monotherapy. BIC was well tolerated, and displayed rapid absorption and a half-life supportive of once-daily therapy in HIV-infected subjects. PMID: 28196003 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Impact of HIV and Atiretroviral Therapy on Neurocognitive Outcomes Among School-Aged Children.

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Impact of HIV and Atiretroviral Therapy on Neurocognitive Outcomes Among School-Aged Children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 May 01;75(1):1-8 Authors: Brahmbhatt H, Boivin M, Ssempijja V, Kagaayi J, Kigozi G, Serwadda D, Violari A, Gray RH Abstract INTRODUCTION: The impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on neurocognitive outcomes among children aged 7-14 years was assessed. We hypothesized that ART would ameliorate neurocognitive sequelae of HIV infection. METHODS: HIV-positive and HIV-negative mother-child pairs from the Rakai Community Cohort Study and ART clinics in Rakai, Uganda, were followed prospectively for 4 years. Exposures were stratified as: perinatally HIV infected, perinatally HIV exposed but uninfected, and HIV unexposed and uninfected. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children assessed sequential and simultaneous processing, learning, planning, knowledge, and fluid crystalized index for overall functioning. Multivariable generalized linear models estimated adjusted prevalence rate ratios by age. RESULTS: Of the 370 mother-child pairs, 55% were HIV unexposed and uninfected, 7% were perinatally HIV exposed but uninfected, and 37.9% were perinatally HIV infected. Among HIV-infected children, longer duration of ART was associated with a significant improvement of sequential processing skills (adjusted prevalence rate ratios 25-36 months: 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34 to 0.9; 37-48 months: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.76; 49+ months: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.54). Each additional year of schooling was associated with a 30%-40% decrease of impairment for all neurocognitive measures assessed. Healthier children (higher age-standardized height and weight) had improved sequential and simultaneous processing and overall fluid crystalized index. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential processing skills of working memory improved with prolonged ART, and increased duration of schooling was associated with a reduction of neurocognitive impairment. Early initiation and sustained use of ARTs and longer schooling are needed to reduce neurocognitive impairment among HIV-infected school-aged children. PMID: 28169874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.

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Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Jun 18;13(6): Authors: Zhang D, Li Z, Zhang W, Guo P, Ma Z, Chen Q, Du S, Peng J, Deng Y, Hao Y Abstract Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children's parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases. Results of further multivariate analysis indicated that older age (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34-0.56) and hand-washing before meals (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) are protective factors, whereas airing out bedding more than thrice a month (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.19-17.37) was associated with increased risk for HFMD. Therefore, hand-washing should be recommended to prevent HFMD, and the potential threat of airing out bedding should be carefully considered. However, further studies are needed to examine other possible risk factors. PMID: 27322307 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Health provider responsiveness to social accountability initiatives in low- and middle-income countries: a realist review.

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Health provider responsiveness to social accountability initiatives in low- and middle-income countries: a realist review. Health Policy Plan. 2017 Feb;32(1):125-140 Authors: Lodenstein E, Dieleman M, Gerretsen B, Broerse JE Abstract Social accountability in the health sector has been promoted as a strategy to improve the quality and performance of health providers in low- and middle-income countries. Whether improvements occur, however, depends on the willingness and ability of health providers to respond to societal pressure for better care. This article uses a realist approach to review cases of collective citizen action and advocacy with the aim to identify key mechanisms of provider responsiveness. Purposeful searches for cases were combined with a systematic search in four databases. To be included in the review, the initiatives needed to describe at least one outcome at the level of frontline service provision. Some 37 social accountability initiatives in 15 countries met these criteria. Using a realist approach, retroductive analysis and triangulation of methods and sources were performed to construct Context-Mechanism-Outcome configurations that explain potential pathways to provider responsiveness. The findings suggest that health provider receptivity to citizens' demands for better health care is mediated by health providers' perceptions of the legitimacy of citizen groups and by the extent to which citizen groups provide personal and professional support to health providers. Some citizen groups activated political or formal bureaucratic accountability channels but the effect on provider responsiveness of such strategies was more mixed. Favourable contexts for health provider responsiveness comprise socio-political contexts in which providers self-identify as activists, health system contexts in which health providers depend on citizens' expertise and capacities, and health system contexts where providers have the self-perceived ability to change the system in which they operate. Rather than providing recipes for successful social accountability initiatives, the synthesis proposes a programme theory that can support reflections on the theories of change underpinning social accountability initiatives and interventions to improve the quality of primary health care in different settings. PMID: 27375128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The effects of growing up on a farm on adult lung function and allergic phenotypes: an international population-based study.

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The effects of growing up on a farm on adult lung function and allergic phenotypes: an international population-based study. Thorax. 2017 Mar;72(3):236-244 Authors: Campbell B, Raherison C, Lodge CJ, Lowe AJ, Gislason T, Heinrich J, Sunyer J, Gómez Real F, Norbäck D, Matheson MC, Wjst M, Dratva J, de Marco R, Jarvis D, Schlünssen V, Janson C, Leynaert B, Svanes C, Dharmage SC Abstract RATIONALE: Evidence has suggested that exposure to environmental or microbial biodiversity in early life may impact subsequent lung function and allergic disease risk. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of childhood living environment and biodiversity indicators on atopy, asthma and lung function in adulthood. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey II investigated ∼10 201 participants aged 26-54 years from 14 countries, including participants' place of upbringing (farm, rural environment or inner city) before age 5 years. A 'biodiversity score' was created based on childhood exposure to cats, dogs, day care, bedroom sharing and older siblings. Associations with lung function, bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), allergic sensitisation, asthma and rhinitis were analysed. MAIN RESULTS: As compared with a city upbringing, those with early-life farm exposure had less atopic sensitisation (adjusted OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.58), atopic BHR (0.54 (0.35 to 0.83)), atopic asthma (0.47 (0.28 to 0.81)) and atopic rhinitis (0.43 (0.32 to 0.57)), but not non-atopic outcomes. Less pronounced protective effects were observed for rural environment exposures. Women with a farm upbringing had higher FEV1 (adjusted difference 110 mL (64 to 157)), independent of sensitisation and asthma. In an inner city environment, a higher biodiversity score was related to less allergic sensitisation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report beneficial effects of growing up on a farm on adult FEV1. Our study confirmed the beneficial effects of early farm life on sensitisation, asthma and rhinitis, and found a similar association for BHR. In persons with an urban upbringing, a higher biodiversity score predicted less allergic sensitisation, but to a lesser magnitude than a childhood farm environment. PMID: 27672121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]