Preparing nursing students for enhanced roles in primary care: The current state of prelicensure and RN-to-BSN education.
Nurs Outlook. 2017 Mar - Apr;65(2):222-232
Authors: Wojnar DM, Whelan EM
BACKGROUND: With the current emphasis on including registered nurses (RNs) on the primary care teams, it is essential that nursing programs prepare students for employment in these settings.
PURPOSE: This study explored the current state of prelicensure and RN-to-Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) online education regarding the implementation of primary care content in the curricula.
METHODS: A sample of 1,409 schools and/or colleges from across the United States was invited to participate in an online survey. About 529 surveys were returned for an overall response rate of 37.5%. Summative content analysis was used to analyze survey data.
DISCUSSION: Although most respondents have implemented some primary care content, some found it challenging and others have demurred from incorporating primary care content altogether.
CONCLUSION: Nursing leaders and faculty in academia must collaborate with clinical partners to design and expand didactic and clinical learning experiences that emphasize primary care content in the prelicensure and RN-to-BSN education.
PMID: 28034448 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Dietary advice interventions in pregnancy for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 01 03;1:CD006674
Authors: Tieu J, Shepherd E, Middleton P, Crowther CA
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes occurring during pregnancy which can result in short- and long-term adverse outcomes for women and babies. With an increasing prevalence worldwide, there is a need to assess strategies, including dietary advice interventions, that might prevent GDM.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of dietary advice interventions for preventing GDM and associated adverse health outcomes for women and their babies.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (3 January 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs assessing the effects of dietary advice interventions compared with no intervention (standard care), or to different dietary advice interventions. Cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion but none were identified.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach.
MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 trials involving 2786 women and their babies, with an overall unclear to moderate risk of bias. Six trials compared dietary advice interventions with standard care; four compared low glycaemic index (GI) with moderate- to high-GI dietary advice; one compared specific (high-fibre focused) with standard dietary advice. Dietary advice interventions versus standard care (six trials) Considering primary outcomes, a trend towards a reduction in GDM was observed for women receiving dietary advice compared with standard care (average risk ratio (RR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35 to 1.04; five trials, 1279 women; Tau² = 0.20; I² = 56%; P = 0.07; GRADE: very low-quality evidence); subgroup analysis suggested a greater treatment effect for overweight and obese women receiving dietary advice. While no clear difference was observed for pre-eclampsia (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.46; two trials, 282 women; GRADE: low-quality evidence) a reduction in pregnancy-induced hypertension was observed for women receiving dietary advice (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.88; two trials, 282 women; GRADE: low-quality evidence). One trial reported on perinatal mortality, and no deaths were observed (GRADE: very low-quality evidence). None of the trials reported on large-for-gestational age or neonatal mortality and morbidity.For secondary outcomes, no clear differences were seen for caesarean section (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.24; four trials, 1194 women; Tau² = 0.02; I² = 36%; GRADE: low-quality evidence) or perineal trauma (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.23 to 3.08; one trial, 759 women; GRADE: very low-quality evidence). Women who received dietary advice gained less weight during pregnancy (mean difference (MD) -4.70 kg, 95% CI -8.07 to -1.34; five trials, 1336 women; Tau² = 13.64; I² = 96%; GRADE: low-quality evidence); the result should be interpreted with some caution due to considerable heterogeneity. No clear differences were seen for the majority of secondary outcomes reported, including childhood/adulthood adiposity (skin-fold thickness at six months) (MD -0.10 mm, 95% CI -0.71 to 0.51; one trial, 132 children; GRADE: low-quality evidence). Women receiving dietary advice had a lower well-being score between 14 and 28 weeks, more weight loss at three months, and were less likely to have glucose intolerance (one trial).The trials did not report on other secondary outcomes, particularly those related to long-term health and health service use and costs. We were not able to assess the following outcomes using GRADE: postnatal depression; maternal type 2 diabetes; neonatal hypoglycaemia; childhood/adulthood type 2 diabetes; and neurosensory disability. Low-GI dietary advice versus moderate- to high-GI dietary advice (four trials) Considering primary outcomes, no clear differences were shown in the risks of GDM (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.31; four trials, 912 women; GRADE: low-quality evidence) or large-for-gestational age (average RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.86; three trials, 777 babies; Tau² = 0.61; P = 0.07; I² = 62%; GRADE: very low-quality evidence) between the low-GI and moderate- to high-GI dietary advice groups. The trials did not report on: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; perinatal mortality; neonatal mortality and morbidity.No clear differences were shown for caesarean birth (RR 1.27, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.04; two trials, 201 women; GRADE: very low-quality evidence) and gestational weight gain (MD -1.23 kg, 95% CI -4.08 to 1.61; four trials, 787 women; Tau² = 7.31; I² = 90%; GRADE: very low-quality evidence), or for other reported secondary outcomes.The trials did not report the majority of secondary outcomes including those related to long-term health and health service use and costs. We were not able to assess the following outcomes using GRADE: perineal trauma; postnatal depression; maternal type 2 diabetes; neonatal hypoglycaemia; childhood/adulthood adiposity; type 2 diabetes; and neurosensory disability. High-fibre dietary advice versus standard dietary advice (one trial) The one trial in this comparison reported on two secondary outcomes. No clear difference between the high-fibre and standard dietary advice groups observed for mean blood glucose (following an oral glucose tolerance test at 35 weeks), and birthweight.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Very low-quality evidence from five trials suggests a possible reduction in GDM risk for women receiving dietary advice versus standard care, and low-quality evidence from four trials suggests no clear difference for women receiving low- versus moderate- to high-GI dietary advice. A possible reduction in pregnancy-induced hypertension for women receiving dietary advice was observed and no clear differences were seen for other reported primary outcomes. There were few outcome data for secondary outcomes.For outcomes assessed using GRADE, evidence was considered to be low to very low quality, with downgrading based on study limitations (risk of bias), imprecision, and inconsistency.More high-quality evidence is needed to determine the effects of dietary advice interventions in pregnancy. Future trials should be designed to monitor adherence, women's views and preferences, and powered to evaluate effects on short- and long-term outcomes; there is a need for such trials to collect and report on core outcomes for GDM research. We have identified five ongoing studies and four are awaiting classification. We will consider these in the next review update.
PMID: 28046205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Price comparison of high-cost originator medicines in European countries.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2017 Apr;17(2):221-230
Authors: Vogler S, Zimmermann N, Babar ZU
BACKGROUND: In recent years, high-cost medicines have increasingly been challenging the public health
budget in all countries including high-income economies. In this context, this study aims to survey, analyze and compare prices of medicines that likely contribute to high expenditure for the public payers in high-income countries.
METHODS: We chose the following 16 European countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland
, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Slovakia, Spain and United Kingdom. The ex-factory price data of 30 medicines in these countries were collected in national databases accessible through the Pharmaceutical Price Information (PPI) service of Gesundheit Österreich GmbH (Austrian Public Health Institute).
RESULTS: The ex-factory prices (median) per unit (e.g. per tablet, vial) ranged from 10.67 cent (levodopa + decarboxylase inhibitor) to 17,000 euro (ipilimumab). A total of 53% of the medicines surveyed had a unit ex-factory price (median) above 200 Euro. For two thirds of the medicines, price differences between the highest-priced country and lowest-priced country ranged between 25 and 100%; the remaining medicines, mainly low-priced medicines, had higher price differential, up to 251%. Medicines with unit prices of a few euros or less were medicines for the treatment of diseases in the nervous system (anti-depressants, medicines to treat Parkinson and for the management of neuropathic pain), of obstructive airway diseases and cardio-vascular medicines (lipid modifying agents). High-priced medicines were particularly cancer medicines.
CONCLUSION: Medicine prices of Greece, Hungary, Slovakia and UK were frequently at the lower end, German and Swedish, as well as Danish and Irish
prices at the upper end. For high-priced medicines, actual paid prices are likely to be lower due to confidential discounts and similar funding arrangements between industry and public payers. Pricing authorities refer to the higher undiscounted prices when they use price data from other countries for their pricing decisions.
PMID: 27658050 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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